BIO 100 Chapter 1 Notes
BIO 100 Chapter 1 Notes BIO 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Tebbe on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 100 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Kenneth Blank in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
1 Life Requires Materials and Energy o Energy is the capacity to do work and it takes work to maintain the organization of the cell and the organism. o When cells use nutrient molecules, they carry out a sequence of chemical reactions. o Metabolism encompasses all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell. o Sun us ultimate source of energy, needed for plants to carry out photosynthesis which is a process that transforms solar energy into the chemical energy of nutrient molecules (called producers) o The energy and chemical flow between organisms is also how the ecosystem flows. Chemical cycling and energy flow begin with producers (like grass) that take in solar energy and inorganic nutrients to produce food by photosynthesis. o Chemical cycling occurs as chemicals move from one population to another in a food chain, until death and decomposition allow inorganic nutrients to be returned to the producers once again. o Energy flows from the sun through plants and the other members of the food chain as they feed on one another. o Energy does NOT cycle, hence why ecosystems could not stay alive without solar energy o The two most biologically diverse ecosystems are tropical rainforests and coral reefs (where solar energy is most abundant) 2 Living Organisms Maintain an Internal Environment o For metabolic processes to continue, living organisms need to keep themselves stable with regard to temp, moisture level, acidity, and other factors otherwise known as homeostasis (maintenance of internal conditions within certain boundaries) o Some organisms depend on behavior to maintain homeostasis where others do not require any conscious activity, for example the organs in our bodies are involved in maintaining homeostasis 3 Living Organisms Respond o Living organisms find energy and/or nutrients by interacting with their surroundings. o Multicellular organisms can respond to more complex responses 4 Living Organisms Reproduce and Develop o Single celled organisms simply separate to reproduce whereas multicellular involve sperm and egg but everything living can reproduce o Because of genes (genetic instructions) embryo become something much greater with the DNA in the genes. o Many differences between species because of mutations or inheritable changes in genetic info o All cells in a multicellular organism contain the same set of genes but only certain ones are turned on in each type of specialized cell. 5 Living Organisms Have Adaptations o Adaptations are modifications that make organisms suited to their way of life o Evolution, or the manner in which species become adapted to their environment, is discussed in the next section of the chapter 6 Evolution: The Core Concept of Biology o Define the term evolution o Explain the process of natural selection and its relationship to evolutionary processes. o Summarize the general characteristics of the domain and major kingdoms. o An evolutionary tree traces the ancestry of life on Earth to a common ancestor. For example, a population can be common ancestor to several groups but each adapt to different environmental settings o Evolution is the process in which populations accumulate adaptations over time to become more suited to their environments, may be considered the unifying concept of biology because it explains so many aspects of biology 7 Natural Selection and Evolutionary Processes o Darwin and Wallace came to the conclusion that independently evolution occurs by the means of natural selection, the core concept of biology o Natural selection is based on how a population changes in response to its environment such as changes in living and nonliving factors (predators and temp) o The change in frequency of traits in population is called evolution. o The phrase "common descent with modification" sums up the process of evolution because it means that as descent occurs from common ancestors, modifications occur that cause these organisms to be adapted to the environment. o Evolution by natural selection aids in cures to disease, why there are so many variations of the same species and characteristics o Also explains resistance from some bacteria to today's modern drugs. 8 Organizing the Diversity of Life o Two areas that help biologists group organisms include taxonomy (discipline of identifying and naming organisms according to certain rules) and systematics (makes sense out of the bewildering variety of life on Earth by classifying organisms according to their presumed evolutionary relationships). o Categories of Classification: 1. Species 2. Genus 3. Family 4. Order 5. Class 6. Phylum 7. Kingdom: 4 kingdoms with domain eukarya--> 1)protists (very diverse, single celled and multicellular, photosynthetic, decomposers, ingest. 2)fungi are familiar molds and mushrooms that help decompose dead organisms 3)plants that are multicellular photosynthesizers and 4)animals that are multicellular and ingest food 8. Domain: most inclusive and general level. Only 3 domains --> bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes which are single celled and lack membrane bounded nucleus and eukarya is eukaryotes 1. Prokaryotes are structurally simple but metabolically complex. Archaea live in water where oxygen lacks and very salty, hot acidic for other organisms 2. Bacteria are found everywhere o Species placed in different domains are the most distantly related. o Each living thing has a two part name called a binomial name based on Latin o The first word in the genus and the second word is the specific epithet of a species within a genus 1 Science: A way of Knowing o Identify the steps of the scientific method o Describe the basic requirements for a controlled experiment o Distinguish between a theory and a hypothesis o Biology is the scientific study of life. 1 Start with an Observation o Scientific method begins with observation o Scientists also extend the ability of their senses by using instruments like a microscope and also looking up past experiments and studies 2 Develop a Hypothesis o Inductive reasoning occurs whenever a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole. Chance can help a scientist come up with an idea o A possible explanation for a natural event is a hypothesis which is based on existing knowledge so it is much more informed than a mere guess 3 Make a Predictions and Perform Experiments o An experiment is a series of procedures designed to test a specific hypothesis and the manner in which they perform it is called the experimental design. o With a well prepared hypothesis, a scientist can make a prediction of what the results of the experiment will be and if it does not work, then a new hypothesis must be reached o The researcher attempts to keep all of the conditions constant except for the experimental variable which is deliberately changed and one or more test groups are exposed to this but one is controlled. o Scientists often use model organisms and model systems to test a hypothesis because it allows the researcher to control aspects of the experiment 4 Collect and Analyze Data o Results of the experiment are referred to as data. Mathematical data usually in graphs or tables others on statistics. o Statistical analysis allows a scientist to detect relationships in the data that may not be obvious on the surface. o The greater the variance in the data, the greater the probability of error 5 Develop a Conclusion o Scientists must analyze the data in order to reach a conclusion about whether a hypothesis is supported or not. Results that do not support one hypothesis can help scientists formulate another and is reported in scientific journals. o Experiments and observations must be repeatable, or get the same result otherwise people will be suspect 6 Scientific Theory o The ultimate goal of science is to understand the natural world in terms of scientific theories which are accepted explanations for how the world works. o Some basic theories include the cell theory (all organisms are composed of cells), the gene theory (inherited info dictates the form, function, and behavior of organisms), and the theory of evolution (all organisms have a common ancestor and each organism is adapted to a particular way of life). o The theory of evolution allows scientists to understand the history of life, variety of organisms, and the anatomy, physiology, and development of organisms o The theory of evolution is the principle of evolution, a term sometimes used for theories that are generally accepted by an overwhelming number of scientists. 7 An Example of a Controlled Study o When studying ulcers, the control group is not given medication but one or more groups are. IF the control group show the same results as the test group, scientists know that the results of their study is invalid because the medications may have nothing to do with the results. o One way to protect the results from any influence other than the medication is a placebo, a treatment that appears to be the same as that administered to the other two groups but actually contains no medication o When neither the patient nor the technician are aware of the specific treatment, it is called a double-blind study 8 Publish your results o A scientific journal is reviewed by experts to ensure credibility, accuracy, unbiased, and well executed. o Another scientist should be able to repeat the same experiment in a different location and get the same results o Conclusions of one experiment often lead to another experiment. 9 Challenges facing Science o Distinguish between science and technology o Summarize some of the major challenges currently facing science o Science is a systematic way of acquiring knowledge about the natural world. o Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to the interests of humans. 10 Bioethics o The inclusion of a review process means that science has a built-in safety mechanism. o Bioethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the development and consequences of biological technology. o Investigations into cell structure and genes led to the current biotechnology revolution. o Biodiversity is perhaps the single most significant bioethical issue that we face today. It may be defined as variation in life on Earth and it usually refers to the number of different species 11 Human Influence on Ecosystems o Humans disrupt the natural flow of energy and nutrients in the ecosystem. o As ecosystems decline in health, the level of biodiversity in that ecosystem suffers. o Biodiversity is linked to extinction which is the death of a species or a larger taxonomic group. 12 Emerging Diseases o Swine flu, avian influenza, and sever acute respiratory syndrome are emerging diseases. o These can be caused by new or increased exposure to animals or insects, changes in human behavior or technology 13 Climate Change o Climate change refers to changes in the normal cycles of the Earth's climate that may be attributed to human activity. This is due to the imbalance in the chemical cycling of the element carbon. o Because of human activity, more carbon is being released than can be removed naturally. About twice that remains in the atmosphere. o This causes a rise in global warming. These gases allow the sun's rays to pass through however absorb and radiate heat back to Earth (greenhouse effect).
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