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Western civilization HIST 101

by: chris floyd

Western civilization HIST 101 HIST 101

Marketplace > West Virginia University > History > HIST 101 > Western civilization HIST 101
chris floyd

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About this Document

these notes cover the first 3 chapters for western civilization with good descriptions on important key points for these chapters
W Civilization:Antiquity-1600
Lindsey McNellis
Class Notes
Neolithic, Bronze Age, archaicGreece, westerncivilizations
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by chris floyd on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at West Virginia University taught by Lindsey McNellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see W Civilization:Antiquity-1600 in History at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Western Civ 8/26/16 Bronze Age on Crete ● The Minoans  ○ Arose in 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE on crete  ○ Knossos ■ Capital of Minoan Crete ■ Grand and more complex palace ■ abandoned after its destruction in 1375 BC which  marked the end of Minoan civilization. ○ Three kinds of writing ■ Hieroglyphics, linear ● The Mycenaeans ○ Centered on Mycenae ○ Spoke a non­Indo­European language (not related to Greek) ○ A warrior people: fortified cities, murals depicting war ○ Height of power: 1400­1200 BCE ○ Disappeared by 1100 BCE (competing explanations/ Dorian  invasion) ○ Not a lot of writing about them  ● Hittite (1500­1200 BCE) ○ Language combo of Sanskrit, Greek and Latin ○ Dominant by 1200 BCE  ○ Sea peoples invasion  ○ Government  ○ Society  ○ King ○ Had to serve in the military  ○ Had paid mercenaries  ○ Laws protect men and women so fairly equal ○ Heavy taxes for expensive infrastructures ○ Adopt all gods when they take over a new place or city  ● Assyrians (1300­665 BCE) ○ Traded with babylon  ○ Spoke semitic ○ Clash with arameans ○ Not tolerant ○ Military hierarchy ○ Brutal military tactics  ● Phoenicians ○ Byblos, tyre, sidon ○ Trade network by 950 BCE ■ Biggest trade with Carthage by 800 BCE ○ Baalat, Baal ○ Alphabet based on Ugaritic Alphabet ○ Best sailing fleet in the mediterranean  1)What are our sources about Ugarit’s final days? Under the last and final King Ammurapi, the  city of Ugarit was destroyed and never rebuilt. It as abandoned and forgotten for over 31  centuries. It did not fall like other grand cities might have but it fell by the hands of the people at  the sea. Ugarit was a city of wealth but did not have a powerful army. They relied on strong  allies to protect them but they did have enemies also such as the Carchemish. The invasions by the Sea People is what really destroyed them  2)How does the author piece together the information about the Sea Peoples and Ugarit? He  tells it as if it’s a story. He begins by telling us the beginning of the Ugarits and how they fell and were destroyed. He later explains all of the other ancient cities that were allied to the grand  wealthy Ugarits but that some of their neighbors were constantly at conflict with them. He shows readings from other ancient societies maybe allies and they all said that the sea people came  and invaded the ugarits. The sea people pushed them back along with some of their allies. He  wanted us to know that there is little information about this but that the sea people invaded and  ran off the ugarits. 3)What is the story of the Sea Peoples invasion?  The sea people were raiders of the sea who  coasted along the mediterranean invading big grand cities. They focused mainly on egypt and  destroyed the city of Ugarit which remained abandoned for over 31 centuries. 1)What is the purpose of the inscription? They were texts telling about his major exploits with  enemies especially the Sea people. Also were descriptions of the sea people to maybe find the  ethnicity or discover who the sea people really are/were. 2)Why is it being recorded? For whom? What evidence of bias is there? The exploits that  Ramses3 faced with enemies especially the sea people. It is being recorded for to provide an  account of egypt’s campaign against the coalition of the sea from an egyptians point of view.  This was also not the first or only recording of the sea people. There were other societies that  recorded attacks from the sea people. 3)What are the dangers of using this source to understand ancient history and the Sea  Peoples? There are missing pieces in the text and readings that could be important clues telling  us who they were and what they wanted and the reasoning for their attacks. It is not complete  and could lead us to believe something thats not 100% true. Western Civ. 09/07/16 Archaic Greece Dark ages to the polis ● Three stages in greek history (1100­750 BCE) ○ Greek speaking peoples spread to aegean islands and coast of  asia minor  ○ Writing disappeared after fall of mycena, reappearing 750 BCE  ○ Major source of information for this period is Homer’s epic poems  ■ Iliad  ■ Odyssey ● Homeric society  ○ Kings rule with consultation with nobles  ○ Hierarchical society: nobles and everyone else  ■ Nobles  ■ Thetes (small farmers) ■ Landless laborers  ■ Slaves  ○ Values: ■ Strength  ■ Courage  ■ Honor  ■ Reputation; arete ○ Women were to bear and raise children  ● The Polis  ○ Foundation of Greek life ○ Independent “city­states” ○ Firmly established in 750 BCE  ○ Community of relatives, citizens theoretically descended from a  common ancestor  ○ An elevated area for local farmers to retreat in case an attack  ● Hoplite Phalanx ○ End of 8th cent. BCE  ○ Hoplite: heavily armed  infantryman; spear and large shield  ○ Phalanx: body of hoplite formed in close ranks about eight deep  ○ Depended on discipline  ● Spartan Government  ○ Elements of monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy ■ Two kings  ■ Council of elders (28 men over age 60) ■ Assembly (all males over 30) ■ Ephors (5 men elected annually by elders) ○ Peloponnesian League ■ Led by sparta  ■ Alliances extracted from all but one peloponnesian  state  ■ Made sparta the most powerful polis in Hellenic  history  ● Location ­ Attica ­Athenian Government  ○ Government­ typical aristocratic polis  ■ Tribes, clans, and military brotherhoods ■ Areopagus­­­ council of nobles (held true power) ■ 9 archons­­ magistrates ■ Assembly  ○ Law code of Draco, 621 BCE first written law in athens  ● Athenian Rulers  ○ Solon ■ Elected sole archon, 594 BCE  ■ agricultural , economic reforms ■ Constitutional changes ● Citizenship expanded  ● Father of democracy  ○ Cleisthenes  ■ Furthered reforms of solon and pisistratus:  increased citizen rolls, decreased power of aristocracy  ■ Deme­ basic political unit  ■ Council of 500 ■ Role of assembly elevated 


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