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History Unit 1 notes

by: Shibrena Sanders

History Unit 1 notes History 2610

Shibrena Sanders
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These notes will start from the Introduction, in case some of you didn't get the separate introduction notes, It will end with the Conquistadors.
US History to 1865
Michael Leggiere
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shibrena Sanders on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2610 at University of North Texas taught by Michael Leggiere in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see US History to 1865 in History at University of North Texas.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Colonial America 1754 Introduction History of the Colonies, is viewed as English speaking white settlers th th traveling to America in the 16 and 17 centuries. Landing in the Atlantic Seaborg. American history began on the Atlantic Coast, they steadily headed westward to the Appalachian Mountains and the Ohio river by the end of the colonial period 1770’s. The belief is that the roots of America is Jamestown, that was settled in 1607 and Plymouth that was settled in 1620. According to earlier attempts by other powers Spanish, French, Swedish and other Europeans, this was not important or irrelevant until the 1960’s. The only role that the Native Americans played was to present a challenge to the settlers that came from England. American Exceptionalism is the making of new people in a new land. Immigrating to America, these settlers escaped a ridged customs and the society of England. Came to North America to find new opportunities. Ground work for American Exceptionalism, grown into the methodology. Very appealing, but overly simplified view of the United States. Peasants had a higher social status than from England. They don’t talk about all the failed colonies, Roanoke colony, or those that suffered at the success of the colonists: Native Americans, indentured servitude and slaves. This view is not as appealing. The roots of American Exceptionalism left this part out. Not all the colonist are English, some were Spanish, Swedish, Dutch, French, Russian. It also left out the Indian’s even though they are a major part of AE. Slavery was a huge portion of the governmental ideal and profit. Women too were not appreciated enough. There is a new view since the 1960’s, colonial society did create something different from the English society. Although this new society is a major difference from the previous colonial society. Colonial history was not an exclusive group of white people, but a very mixed group of all people. An unpresented group of people under extremely stressed situation. This created a new culture and it was very new and different from intermingling of three cultures. Native American, European, and African, provided the foundation for the culture we have today. One of the main differences from the old world was left out in the new world. In the old world it was based on where you were born, noble or commoner. 5% nobles and 95% commoners. Commoners provided the support for the nobles, they were the working class, or farmers. Two class system (social structure) comes from Feudalism, this idea has been around for thousands of years. Romans, got it from the Egyptians. That grew into Europe. This is the haves and haves not. The nobility controlled everything: church, military, and government. All you had to do was be born into a level. This idea did not cross the Atlantic Ocean, instead of birth being the determining factor, race became the primary way of arranging identity’s in the new world. Initially when the new world was being established, they assumed they were culturally superior to the inhabitants. Cultural Superiority was Christian and European. They believed they had to civilize the inhabitants and Africans they brought to the new world. One day they hoped these people would become civilized enough to be the commoners. A white consensuses emerged because of this a very polarized conception of race grew and as the political power of common white people grew, so did the idea. In the colonies there were differences between lower and higher class whites. That difference was never set in law, but the difference between races did as the political power of lower class whites grew. They worked in the militia. They formed common bonds of white solidarity. Their mission was to gain control of Native Americans and Africans. Race rather, than birth became the new methodology in the new world. As the colony unrevealed the wealth conceded greater social respect and political power to the lower class whites. Lower class whites were given greater respect and political power in the new world, enjoying unheard of opportunities and freedoms. This came at a price, the suppression of the Native population and the oppression of the Slave population. This aspect of the colonial experience was ignored, now it’s the dominant aspect of the colonial history. Pre-Columbia Civilization The way the world viewed the Native American cultures as unchanging until the European arrived. The European explorers in the 15 and 16 th centuries encountered a cert diverse array of Native Americans because the western hemisphere is diverse. Two contents, diverse climates, coastal plains, grasslands, harsh deserts, jungles, and mountain ranges because of the diverse climates this meant that there are diverse social and cultural patterns of Native Americans. The Native Americans started out as hunters and gathers, they eventually settled down fishing and farming. Culture evolved farming towns in the region of Mexico started in 2000BC. Corn, squash, chili peppers, pumpkins, and avocadoes. Among these groups, organized religion, government administration, art, and science grew. Then eventually this lead to war. Overtime these groups grew into cities and religion grew so much that temples and pyramids were built. The ruling class became so powerful that castles like things were created. Aztec, Inca, Mayan Empires grew, the most famous is the Mayan Empire. The Mayans developed math and astronomy, the Mayan civilization th didn’t last until the 900AD, 10 century. It is believed that the over population, and over exploration of the rainforest collapsed the Mayan Empire. That gap was filled by the Aztec Empire of about 4 million people. The height of the Empire was in the 1500’s, 16 century. Further, South the Incan Empire was situated right through the Andes Mountains, it was quite large, Chile to Columbia (modern day). Developed a system of roads and a centralized government, then disappeared. North America was not as developed. They were often at war and enslaved each other, ritualistic cannibalism was common. Developed divers cultures, in times of peace they would exchange ideas. Three shared beliefs were shared among all the tribes:  Scarceness of nature  Necessity of living in tribes  Respect for Elders The largest region is the Mississippian Culture; the most common tribe is the Cahokia. About 10,000 people, the built the third largest pyramid in the western hemisphere. By the 13 century, 1200’s, the older native cultures disappeared and a new wave of cultures rose up. On the eve of the arrival of the Europeans, there was much upheaval. When the Europeans arrived there was about 240 different tribes in North America (NA), about 4 million people. The major rivers allowed for transportation, there were also trails in which the Indians used for trade with each other. By the 1500’s there were three major regional groups:  Eastern Woodland Tribes: Algonquian, Iroquois, Huron  Great Plains Tribes: Blackfoot, Crow, Cheyenne, Comanche, Apache  Western Tribes: Tillamook, Chinook, Pomo Each Tribe depended on agriculture for survival and the key cultural beliefs:  Small game and gathering  Hunting basin and raising corn  Hunted Whales/Seals and fished Shows us that the tribes survived by adapting to changes in climate and environment. They were not static, but they were not by any means ready for the Europeans. Loss of life, millions killed disease and thousands by sword and shot. Many did survive and absorbed the change. Unlike the general trend in history of mankind (movement of man and killing of others, one being conquered another rising up.) The story in NA was a little more complicated that story of conquest and displacement. The played a crucial role in the origin of the United States. We need to view them as the victims and participants in the creation of NA. Indians were not static, they were adaptable and acceptable to change, but not ready for the Europeans. Early European Contact Columbus discoverer of a new world was fueled by curiosity. It was made possible by advances in society. There had been earlier efforts. First by the Vikings, in the 10 century. Caused a lot of disruption in Europe. They produced the strongest iron ore in the world, best swords and fastest ships. In 985 Erik the Red discovered Greenland because he wanted to bring people there. His son Leif Erikson found Newfoundland in the year 1001, 11 th century. Leif Erikson settlement didn’t last long because the Indians drove them out in about a year. The Viking colonies in Greenland disappeared by the 15 century, 1400’s. Inuit tribe drove out the Vikings. Several key developments in that same century sparked further exploration. One of the key developments was the Renaissance. The way that the Renaissance contributed was the rediscovery of ancient books. These books contained ancient concepts of geography. In ancient Greece taught that the world was round in the 6 century, 700BC. In the 3 century BC, the Greeks had actually computed the size of the earth. During the Renaissance era they have the renewal of knowledge. When the European scholars looked over this they believed it was correct and thought it was taught in schools. Columbus was not trying to prove that the Earth was round. It was generally known that the Earth was not flat, by the well-educated. They applied this rediscovery on their voyages, along with new tools, such as, the compass and the astrolabe. These were huge advantages, even with these improvements, crossing the ocean was still dangerous. Another key development was an increase in trade and commerce. This age of exploration was driven by the growth of European trade of silk, medicine, spices and gem stones with Asia. A merchant class had begun to form in Europe, which became a formal business structure formed in stock. People would invest in a trading company, and would receive a portion of the company. Each month they have would receive a profit. The problem was around 1200, the cost of trading with Asia began to increase. These stock companies were losing money. The reason for this was the rise of the Muslim world, situated right between Europe and Asia. These empires began to demand payment to use their lands for trade. The route by sea was very long and dangerous, the land routes were preferred. Related to this the Ottoman Empire had conquered the city of Constantinople . It was the capital of the Byzantine Empire, the Eastern Empire. It became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. The fall of Constantinople , left the Roman Empire, it was an old Christian empire. Constantinople is on European territory, this sent shock waves through Europe because it looked like the Muslims would over-take all of Europe. It was now even more important to find ways to get into Asia. The was a fear that went all over Europe, that Europe would be conquered, had to make them find a new way to get to Asia. Another key development was the rise of the nation state in Europe. After the fall of the Roman Empire in 5 century, the Eastern survived as the Byzantine. The western collapse and this became the dark ages. A th government grew in Europe; it wasn’t around until the 10 century that the countries started taking shape. Top three countries were Spain, France, and Portugal, along with England. Germany joined in the exploration. It wasn’t th until about the 12 century that the government became administratively able collect money to provide varies serves. These four countries had enough money left over to fund their explorations to the new world and foreign riches. The interest of the government merged with the merchant class. Merchants were able to contribute money and man power for exploration. Another key development was a new means of warfare. During the 15 th th and 16 centuries, European countries adopted gun power. The government started to have armies, and only they could have armies. Now the government has a way to control the people into getting them to pay taxes. By the late 15 century, Portugal, Spain, France, and England had strong centralized governments, professional well-trained armies, rich merchant class, and were ready to spread wealth and power to the new world. The centralized governments were the most important development. Age of Exploration In the 15 century Portugal, on the Western sliver of Spain. Portugal dominated European overseas exploration. First sailed to the South tip of Africa, in order to find the Indian Ocean into Asia. Christopher Columbus learned how to sail by the Portuguese; he was obsessed with spreading Christianity. The fall of Constantinople affected him, he was also obsessed with gaining wealth and prestige. He thought by charting a new way to get to Asia he would gain both wealth and prestige. By going west, different kingdoms were unified to create Spain. Queen Isabella had the funds to sponsor Columbus; he would make 4 voyages to the new world until he died in 1506. The first voyage was most important; during that first voyage in 1492 he found Haiti, he thought he discovered the Eastern Indies, so he named the inhabitants Indians. He enslaved thousands of Native Americans and shipped them to England. His journal was then published in 1493, so that other countries started sponsoring voyages. This allowed for the creation of colonies, the two major countries were Spain and Portugal. Pope Alexander th the 6 in 1494 convinced Spain and Portugal to sign a Treaty of Tordesillas, which divided the Western Hemisphere for Spain and Portugal. This treaty was also designed to keep the other countries out, such as, France and England. Importance of the Treaty of Tordesillas  Divided the area between Spain and Portugal.  Kept out the French and English.  Marks the beginning of the colonial rivalries in the new world. Many countries didn’t care about this Treaty so it became a race to find land and create colonies. Columbus thought he found Asia, it wasn’t until Vascco found the Western Hemisphere. Once they made contact, what takes place is an unpresented is a social, cultural and biological factors. In this exchange the Europeans have the advantage and that will lead to their victory. They brought diseases, since the Europeans had better immune systems since they would trade with other countries. The Native Americans developed in isolation so small pox, etc. killed 10 thousand Native Americans because they were not accustomed to it. This didn’t just involve the Indians, but Africans as well. This together is called the Columbian Exchange: the sharing of Biological, cultural and social characteristics between the Africans, Indians and Europeans. When the Europeans came into the new world they never saw Bacon, Llamas, rattle snacks, monkeys, or cougars. The Native Americans never saw cattle, pigs, horses, goats, or sheep’s. Within half a century the Caribbean Islands were overrun by pigs. Europeans never seen corn, potatoes, tomatoes, or many beans. Natives never saw rice, wheat, bananas, coffee, barley, or melons. Before the end of the 16 century corn became the staple crop of China. Corn and potatoes were very important to the world wide population exploration. In Europe this created a surplus of people eager to colonize the new world. Significant tragic application was the transference of disease from Africa and Europe to the new world. Yellow fever, bubonic plague, cholera, malaria, small pox, and Tiflis. The Columbian Exchange also created social problems in the Native Tribe. The chiefs and religious leaders could not explain what was happening so they lost favor in their tribes. Europeans had an easy time in actual combat, they feel that they have cultural superiority, then it changes to racial superiority. The effort was still to find a way to get th into Asia, not to colonize. The shore-lines were skewered. Henry the 7 sponsored John Cabot to discover Canada. The first to discover North America in 1497, Vasco Nunez in 1513 crossed the isthmus to reach the Pacific Ocean. Magellan went around in 1519 the tip of South America to find the Philippines, they returned to Spain in 1592. First people to cross the globe. Conquistadors It was Spain that took the lead in the expedition; England came in th rather late. In the 16 century, Spain created a very large Empire in the new and old worlds. The Spanish had specific motivates for creating this Empire called G : God, Glory, and Gold. That was the motivation for the conquistadors. No matter how great they were as leaders or men the colonization of the new world was dangerous and deadly. The first generations that came to the new world died of malnutrition. In the first half of the 15 century they did create a large new empire in the Caribbean, South America, Mexico, and the bottom portion of North America. They found both gold and silver, this then allowed them to gain glory. Spain is an ultra- catholic country; this was their whole society. The Spanish in the 1400’s fought a long, hard, war to drive out the Muslim moors. They were motivated to the new world in order to spread Catholicism. To replace native paganism, with Catholicism based culture. This was seen as a continuation of what they did in the old world. This was not a healthy, nice take-over, but one of submission and forced conversion. There were a lot of priests that set up Catholic missionaries, but by mid-1500 the Native Americans were nearly extinct. They converted them into Christianity and put them into forced labor telling them that in the Afterlife they will be rewarded. Once the Native Americans were becoming extinct the Spanish began to look elsewhere, into Africa. In the slave trade 9 million Africans will be taken and it started in the 1500’s. The reason it was allowed and went on for so long was because the African tribes were still their own people from enemy tribes in order to gain weapons. The Europeans put them in a position to where they had to trade their own people in order to protect themselves. This doesn’t make Spain look good, but Spain was the first colonial power, and they had no idea what to do. The other countries in Europe would gain a brief foothold in the new world, but Spain was the first to gain more and keep it. The wealth that Spain derived from the new world was so great that the silver from South America made Spain so wealthy. This allowed them to become the leading economic power. The leading parts of the Spanish Empire in the new world was Mexico, the outer edges of this area were there to protect the more valuable areas. St. Augustine was a fort built for that purpose to protect the Empire from attacks from sea. Russians will settle in Canada and the more northern areas of the new world. The French will gain the area of the Great Plains and England the Eastern border of the USA, 13 colonies. There is this fear to flee from Europe, like the Spanish fled from the Muslims, in the 16 century called the “Protestant Reformation.” It was a protest of proclivity injustices of the Catholic Church. The spread provided the religious motive to build this new empire in the new world. Religion continues to play a role in the Spanish drive to create this new world. Previous to this Protestant Reformation was the center of Europe. It was the center of all Christians. They were willing to kill each other over their religion. They persecuted and tortured each other in the thousands. The result was that Spain’s monopoly in the new world was challenged. In the new country, Spain was the leading Catholic country fighting the Protestants. This became the Age of Religious Wars, some other social reasons played a role in this, but it was mainly religion. The success of Catholic Spain, encouraged their enemies to challenge the Spanish Empire. The Treaty of Tordesillas was eventually ignored because it was done under the supervision of the Catholic Pope. France was the first to try and gain an entrance into the new world. They decided to join the Protestants side because their national security was more important to them than religion. Jacque Carter was the first to explore the new world for the French. They explored the Saint Lawrence River area. There were plans to start French Settlements in this area. Their colonial effort was cut short due to the religious wars in Europe, there wasn’t an enough money to fund the expedition. Once the French got over the 30 years’ war (Religious War), they get back to the Age of Exploration. The biggest threat to Spain was the Netherlands and England. During the Protestant Restoration the Dutch adopted Protestantism and in 1567 they revolted against Spain, it took 80 years for them to gain independence. How the Dutch hurt Spain?  Allied with England  Use their navy’s to harass the Spanish fleets o Intersect their treasure voyages The English became Spain’s archenemy, in this war they employed pirates (English Sea Dogs) to hurt the Spanish shipping from the new world to the old world. This lead Francis Derek becoming a knight for his ruthlessness at sea. Spain said enough is enough and they eventually try to invade England with the Spanish Armada. It doesn’t happen until the 1560’s and 1570’s. During that period the English try to take-over Ireland, with brutal tactics to control them, which they saw them as racially inferior. They would employ a tactic called scorched earth to destroy everything. They gained a lot of experience in conquering the Irish, which they later use on the Native Americans:  Brutal tactics  Isolation of native population  Social boundaries based on religion and ethnicity After the conquest of Ireland, England was ready to take on Spain. In 1587 Elizabeth executed her cousin, Mary Queen of the Scots. Elizabeth was protestant and Mary was a catholic, she thought that Mary would try to restore Catholicism back to England and Ireland and she would be thrown out. Mary spent years in prison before her execution, but Elizabeth didn’t want to risk a civil war, so she had her beheaded. The King of Spain was Phillip 2dand he felt that this was an act of war against the catholic church. In 1588 he assembled the largest fleet. The Spanish Armada, 130 ships, 8000 sailors and army of 18,000 men to invade England. The English navy was much smaller, their ships were smaller, bust faster and easier to control. The Spanish fleet had a lot of problems with language: Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, etc. The English used their smaller and faster ships to harass the Spanish fleet. They evaded open battle because they would lose. The weather is what destroyed the Spanish Armada, what the protestants call the “Protestant Wind” because it blew the Spanish Armada into the Atlantic Ocean, destroying the ships. This was the start of Spain’s decline. From the only super power to a second rate country all in one century. Spain’s naval dominance was broken; this was also the beginning of English naval superiority. This was the first requirement for the English to start a settlement in North America. Like the Spanish before them, there was a religious motivation to plant Protestantism in the new world and challenge Catholicism. They also looked for profit and ways to trade. English Settlement: Goals  Challenge Spain in the New World  Spread Protestantism  Get Rich


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