Lecture 1: Introduction and Whooping Cranes
Lecture 1: Introduction and Whooping Cranes EEB215
University of Toronto
Popular in Conservation Biology
Popular in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alejandro Prescott-Cornejo on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EEB215 at University of Toronto taught by Becky Raboy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Conservation Biology in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at University of Toronto.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Biodiversity o Biological diversity o Different plants, animals and geo features that all coexist together Ecosystem services o The resources or the mechanisms that the natural world produces and what it gives us as humans o Benefits we enjoy that come from the natural environment Tragedy of the commons o Common resource that’s used or overused until becomes depleted o Public, not private Sustainability o The ability of current people to meet their current needs without jeopardizing resources to that they will keep giving and giving into the future Stakeholders o A group of individuals or an individual that want to have control over a particular resource o People who have a say in the Lecture 1 – Introduction to Whooping Cranes Adult and chick Wetland species Like to eat crabs and other small animals Will not be required to remember the scientific name for exam Before European settlement they were at 10,000 1860 – 1400 1938 – 14 adults/reproducing individuals is this a common resource that we have been overusing? Some people decided to do something to mitigate o restoration projects o captive breeding 1999 – 180 Now: 603 Current whooping crane population Some in zoos o Taken from the wild and bred in captivity to later begin release in the wild o Threats Strong threat of development together with agriculture Intrinsic threats – those that start happening to a population internally o Biological issues o Populations get so small that it is difficult for individuals to find each other o Low genetic diversity (will talk about it next week) Population more subject to disease, etc. Whooper’s natural lifehistory Winter down in the south and in the summer return to the north Spend winter feeding and resting Court in early spring Depart midmarch Arrive north in april and establish a territory with their mate or flockmates Whooper’s natural lifehistory North Nest in marshes or shallow ponds Usually lay two eggs but usually only one survices September October they fly south again with their chicks in two Recovery effort Captive breeding o Can be implemented within zoos with the hope of releasing the animals later Establishment of new populations Protection of wintering grounds o Creating protected areas o Also summering grounds Where they range in the summer there have been reserves established There have been multiple orgs involved o NGOs o Government o Academics o Etc. Cranes are protected by law Endangered species act and SARA (species at risk act) o More or less similar concepts o Federally regulated laws about species and what can and can’t be done Federal, provincial and international policies in place US and Canadian penalties o Fines o Jail time o Illegal take – endangerment of the species or killing it or taking a part of it or even harassing it is considered a take o US – fines of up 100 000 dollars or 1 year of jail time o Canada – fines of up to 250 000 and 5 years of jail time All sorts of wetland (migratory) birds o Whooping crane looks a lot like the sandhill crane Sandhill cranes are not threatened Hunters could accidentally take a whooping crane and end up in jail for 5 years Some hunters scared to make mistakes Two main populations (and some others) Will talk more about whooping cranes in the course Population that migrates from wood buffalo to Aransas o Don’t all necessarily make it down to the refuge but to the area where they winter o Go back and forth every year o Reintroduction of cranes in Wisconsin Switched from Necedah to white river marsh They migrate to chasahowitzka Kissimmee prairie population no longer exists or numbers are almost gone o Faint line Learned from sandhill cranes Never found mates because their image was of a sandhill crane :’( Eastern Migratory Population created eastern migratory population in Maryland they hatch eggs use sandhill cranes to incubate eggs they were allowed to do a legal take and took 1 egg from nests since the second usually never survives used fake crane head to feed them to not imprint on them used a puppet to teach them the root, only need to see it one time to learn the route Numbers before 2001 there were very low numbers numbers are increasing because every year they bring new cohort down and have been reproducing naturally Difficulties by example: the 2011 Migration starts in the fall and goes into the next year federal aviation administration (US) grounded the flight because the Canadian pilots did not have the right license to be flying in the US o confused the usual migratory pattern side note: do a lot of imprinting with ultralight they finally got the waiver but the cranes were not moving so they moved the cranes to Alabama and so every year sicne this group has been goijg Alabama to Wisconsin 2014 Migration really bad weather so they thought they were going to lose the imprinting period so they decided to just drive them down all the way to Tennessee 600 miles and then they started again from there where did they return to? o They went all over the place and then brought them back to Necedah at the end of the summer This year? o Managed to do a lot better this year o There is a key imprinting window but also key learning End of an Era Graph: pop. went from 0 to around 100 USFW (US Fish and Wildife) o Were no longer going to support the ultralight guided reintroduction projects Direct autumn release o Take chicks when they hatch and then plop them down beside juvenile cranes and hope that they show them the way Parent reared o Since 2013 they’ve been putting the young chicks with a mated pair that hasn’t been able to reproduce Very limited evidence for why these two methods are working Get to know cranes and projects Check websites that she posted We are going to work a lot with how you gauge success Texas water trial Natural population going down to Texas Legal dispute In con biology redundancy can be a good thing Wild population Legal battle between water regulators and environmentalists o A lot of factories, agriculture, etc. o Tragedy of the commons – water should be available to everybody Amount of water left naturally to cranes is less than it would have been without human constructs 23 cranes died one year Wood Buffalo/Aransas Population Aransas project o sued texas water regulators for the death fo 23 cranes o illegal take o federal court – took a few years (20112013), but the judge ruled in favor of the Aransas project o water regulators appealed Wood Buffalo/Aransas Population higher court overturned it December 2014 – denied petition for rehearing The water regulators prevailed Feb 2016 – white paper White paper Authoritative document, but not a legal document A bunch of experts getting together and saying that this is the way things should be Let’s get together and try to figure it out This one… White paper culminates the end of an era of disputes and mistrust Provides a way forward A lot might have been avoided if they had come together sooner Success? We will revisit this case various times Conclusions Read the syllabus in detail Dr. Becky Raboy – conservation biologist Studies certain taxa from south America o Primates – tamarinds (monkeys) Golden head tamarinds And something tuft marmosets o