Ancient Egyptian Art
Ancient Egyptian Art AAH 1010
Popular in Survey of Art and Architectural History I
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daria on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AAH 1010 at Clemson University taught by Beth A. Lauritis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art and Architectural History I in Arts and Humanities at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt ● Predynastic prehistoric) c.35002920 BC Early Dynastic c.29202575 C Old Kingdom c.25752134 BC Middle Kingdom c.20401640 C New Kingdom c.15501070 BC Important Dates in Ancient Egypt ● Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt: ca. 30002920 BC ● Hatshepsut 14731458 BC ● Akhenaten and Amarna Period 3531335 BC ● Tutankhamun 13331323 BC ● Ramses 12901224 BC Why as Egypt so Prosperous? ● Natural defenses: surrounded by the Nile, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and desert. ● The Nile connected upper and lower Egypt, as well as provide resources to the people of Egypt. Pre Dynastic 3 5002920 BC Hieroglyphs osetta Stone ● 196 BC, granodiorite, 45” x 28.5” x 11”. British Museum, London. ● Showed a translation of hieroglyphics to languages that could be understood. People, boats, and animals, watercolor copy of a wall painting from tomb 100 ● Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic, ca. 3500–3200 BCE. Paint on plaster, approx. 16’ 3” long. Egyptian useum, airo. ● Elements of mesopotamian work i represented in Egyptian work. Forms are reused. Palette of ing Narmer ● From Hierakonpolis, gypt, Predynastic, a. 3000–2920 BCE. Slate, approx. ”high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. ● Low relief ● Shows hierarchal scheme, where the most i mportant igures re l argest and near the top or middle. egister . ● Large enough to ee because i is ceremonial piece. This i a palette that is used to blend coal. ● South vs. North crowns of Egypt (UpperSouth, (Lower North) ● Depicts that the Pharaoh takes his belongings to the afterlife, and that he was successful over his enemies. Early Dynastic 29202575 C Egyptian astaba omb ● “Bench” in rabic. ● With so much stuffin the tombs, i shows that the Egyptians want al their belongings i the afterlife. Materialistic. ● The urpose of he arthly lifeto ancient Egyptians was to prepare for the afterlife. ● Burial site has n pening so that the “ka” he person ould move n. ● Basic elements: ○ Serdab, Ka, and ecropolis ● Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty IIIca. 2630–2611 BC. Ashlar masonry (above, left). ● Left of the Nile because the dead are supposed to be facing the direction of the sun. ● Very significant because it showed importance of the ruler. ● Similar to Ziggurats in design, but different in the fact that Ziggurats were not tombs. Facade of the North Palace of the mortuary precinct of Djoser ● Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty IIIca. 2630–2611 BC. Engaged Columns (faceted) capitals. Stylized papyrus and blossoms. ● Cultural borrowing: Greece might’ve taken the idea from Egyptians. Old Kingdom 5752134 BC Capital Memphis Royal Burial Sites: Giza and Saqqara Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty ● From bottom: Pyramids Menkaure, ca. 490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 CE; and Khufu, ca. 2551–2528 BCE. ● Growing season was short in Egypt, so people would become specialized labor in building the pyramids. ● Similar to the mastaba tomb, ithoused rulers and their belongings from earthly life. ● The pyramids had many false passageways to confuse thieves so they didn’t rob the j ewels. ● Pyramid styles have been copied throughout the years. ○ Example: Louvre in Paris, rance 989 Great phinx ● Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV ca. 25202494 BC. Sandstone, approximately 65’ high, 240’ long Khafre Enthroned ● Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 25202494 BC. Diorite, approximately 5’ 6” high. Egyptian useum, airo. ● Representation of Pharaoh. Timeless figure because he goes to the afterlife, and allPharaohs look alike, “godlike”. ● Certain parts of him look natural, but not individualist. He looks generic. ● Lotus (upper Egypt) nd Papyrus (Lower Egypt) Seated cribe ● Saqqara, Egypt ● Dynasty V a 24502350 BC, painted limestone, approximately 1’ 9” high. ● Free standing. ● Made from limestone, ather than copper because he i not powerful the pharaoh. ● Seated on the ground, ore relatable to the ormal person, not on a throne ● Represents the lif of scribe. Menkaure and Khamerernebty ● Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV ca. 24902472 BC. Graywacke, approx. 4’ 6.5” igh.Museum ine rts Boston. ● Not an ngaging l ook. ● The queen looks like she is behind the pharaoh, showing she is the lesser of the two. Ti Watching Hippopotamus Hunt ● Relief in the Mastaba of Ti,Saqqara, Egypt, V Dynasty, ca 24502350 BC. ainted l imestone, 4’ high ● Represents the king as timeless. He i stillwhile the others are dynamic. Middle ingdom 20401640 B C 2260 BCE Old Kingdom – weakening central government 21342040 BCE First Intermediate Period 2040 BCE Egypt reunited under Mentuhotep II Capital: Thebes Fragmentary ead fSenusret II ● 12th Dynasty, ca. 1860 BCE. Red quartzite, 6 ½” high. Metropolitan Museum Art, New York ● Realism shows pessimism of the times. Frowning shows emotion through he tatue. Rock Cut Tombs ● Egypt, ynasty XII ca. 19501900 BC ● Marks major hange i the era. New Kingdom 5501070 BC Capital: khetaten (Tell elAmarna) Hatshepsut with offering Jars ● From the upper court of her mortuary temple, Deir elBahri, Egypt, ca. 1473–1458 BCE. Red granite, approx. 8’6” high. Metropolitan Museum f rt,New York. ● She is obviously a pharaoh because of the headdress and faux beard. ● She is often looked like a male to show she isjust like the other pharaohs. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut ● Deir elBahri, Egypt, Dynasty VIII, ca. 473–1458 CE ● The temple is tructured facing the sun ecause he people elieved that the pharaohs ere descended from the gods. ● The symmetry gives focus, nd gives a sense order nd tability. King and queen of Punt and attendants (Relief from the mortuary temple) ● Dier elBahri, Egypt, 18th dynasty, ca 14731458 BC. Painted limestone, 1’3” Temple of amses II ● Abu Simbel, gypt, 19th ynasty, ca. 12901224 BC. Sandstone, colossi 65’ high. Temple of Amen Re ● Karnak, Egypt egun in 15th Century BC ● Allows plenty of light i so i oesn’t look like ave and isitors can see all the details inscribed i the illars ● Pillars have unken relief o tell stories. Senmut ith Princess efrua ● Thebes, Egypt 18th Dynasty, ca 14701460 BC. Granite, 3’ high. ● Shows that not only important figures were made into stone sculptures ● Also shows that artists changed with the times. Akhenaton ● From the temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca 13531335 BC. Sandstone, 13’ high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo ● Changes Egypt to a monotheistic society, instead of having many gods. ● He doesn’t look like the usual pharaoh. He is tall lanky, has a long face. He might have had a physical condition, and looks less strong. ● Individualized sculpture easier to identify, not generalized. Akhenaton, Nefertiti, nd three daughters ● Tell elAmarna, Egypt, Dynasty 18. Ca 13531335 C. Limestone, 12.25” high. ● This hows a scene in heir ome. It is intimate, engaged “family ortrait”. his i very different from the ther Egyptian rt. ● Looks ore realistic, nd playful. ● Easier pharaoh to relate o, instead of stoic previous ones. ● Ankh at the top THUTMOSE, efertiti ● From el elAmarna, gypt, Dynasty XVIII. ca. 13531335 C. Painted limestone, 1’8” ● Realistic ● Might be deliberately unfinished. ● She is represented as a beautiful young woman. Her features are ideal” ● “Supermodel” look. ● Appears lifelike. TIye ● From Ghurab, Egypt. 18th Dynasty, ca. 13531335 BC. Wood, with gold, ilver, alabaster, nd lapis lazuli, 3.75” high. ● Nefertiti’s other. ● Not idealized, looks old. PostAmarna P eriod Death Mask of Tutankhamen ● (Left) Death mask at the innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes, Egypt. Dynasty XVIII, ca 1323 BC. Gold with inlay of semiprecious stones. 1’ .25” igh. Egyptian useum, Cairo. ● (Right) Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt. Dynasty XVIII, ca 1323 BC. Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones, approx 6’1”. ● Return to radition and standards. Painted Chest, rom he Tomb of Tutankhamen ● Thebes, Egypt, 18th Dynasty ca 13331323 BC. ood, 1’8” long. Egyptian useum, airo ● Shows battle scenes ● This is ifferent because there isless organization than he previous styles. ● Creates a somewhat sense of movement Last Judgement of HuNefer ● From his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, 19th Dynasty. Ca. 12901280 BC. Painted papyrus scroll, 1’6” high.
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