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Anatomy & Physiology - Tissues

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology - Tissues 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Tissues
Courtney Luber

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About this Document

These are the notes covered in lecture on 09/13
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Tissues  Tissue - 2 or more cells put together that work together for a common task  Histology – study of tissues  Epithelial tissue o Covering and lining  ALL free body surfaces are covered with this  Exposed to external environment  i.e. skin; inside of mouth (food is external); lining of respiratory and reproductive tracts  tissue with a whole bunch of white space next to it o glandular  i.e. glands; adrenal gland  if it produces something that is secreted, probably glandular  functions of epithelial tissue o establish boundaries – separates internal from external o protection – pathogens have to get through epithelial tissue to do harm o absorption o filtration – (selective absorption); based on size o excretion o secretion – produces something to be released; i.e. glandular o sensory reception – ability to respond to stimuli  boundaries o apical surface – free surface; exposed to external environment; superficial surface o basal surface – deep portion; part that is away from the external environment; attached to something underneath it  usually connective tissue is under epithelial tissue  there are usually connections such as desmosomes between cells making up tissues  basement membrane o basal lamina  thin line  non-cellular sheet of glycoproteins  adhesive sheet of proteins  holds tissue in place; selective filter  all living cells need to be supplied with blood but epithelial tissues are avascular (no blood vessels) – blood delivered to connective tissue and then diffuses through tissue in order to get to epithelial tissue o reticular lamina  collection of collagen fibers  right under basal lamina  strengthens attachment between epithelium and underlying tissue  covering and lining epithelium o simple  only have one layer  typically function for absorption and filtration  areas that aren’t exposed to a lot of friction o stratified  composed of more than one layer of cells  major function is protection  areas that are exposed to a lot of friction (i.e. skin on bottom of foot)  stratified = 2 or more layers o pseudostratified  only one layer thick but looks like more because nuclei are all over  found in parts of the body that aren’t exposed to a lot of movement; like lining the respiratory tract o squamous  flat  shape of cells on apical surface o cuboidal  box-like  same width as height o columnar  column-shaped  taller than it is wide o transitional  dome cells on apical surface  line hollow cavities (i.e. urinary bladder)  when cavity is empty, cells are dome-shaped  when cavity is full, cells change to flat  no stretch in cavity  glandular epithelium o composes glands – cell or group of cells of specialized epithelium that secrete substances into ducts, onto surfaces r into the blood o where they secrete it depends on gland  some secrete right where it needs to act  some release secretion onto surface of cell  some secrete into bloodstream, which travels to another part of the body o requires energy to produce its secretory products  package it up to secrete it out of epithelium o most glands produce a water-based secretion, but some fat- based  types of glands o exocrine  secrete into a duct  sometimes secretes onto own cell surface  i.e. sweat glands, gallbladder o endocrine  do not have ducts; duct-less  secrete hormones  hormones travel in the bloodstream to go somewhere else  i.e. thyroid, pancreas (part endocrine, part exocrine)  structural classification of glands o unicellular  one cell  i.e. mucous glands  produces mucus (contains protein mucin)  find this lining the digestive tract; prevents us from digesting our own digestive tract  goblet cells o multicellular  more than one cell  can break down these into further distinctions  functional classification (how its released) o merocrine gland  cells produce their secretory product, package it in golgi apparatus, and release vesicle through exocytosis into duct, then it travels  cell stays around & active  i.e. salivary gland, sweat gland, pancreas o holocrine gland  cell produces product and stores it as a cellular inclusion; cell is then sloughed off into duct; cell bursts open and releases contents; cell dies  mitosis replaces the cell  i.e. sebaceous glands (oil glands associated with hair)  connective tissues o all derived from same embryonic tissue  mesenchyme  middle embryonic layer o connective tissue proper  areolar, elastic, dense regular, etc… o cartilage  elastic, fibro, etc… o bone  compact or spongy o blood  only liquid tissue of the body o all contain same structural elements  structural elements o ground substance – background matrix  blood - liquid  bone – solidified o fibers  collagen fibers give it strength  elastic fibers give it ability to stretch o cells  fibroblast, osteocyte, chondrocyte, etc  Muscle tissue o Tissue that is modified for contraction o Respond to a stimulus by contracting o Provide movement and/or heat  As muscle contracts, it generates heat o All contain:  Sarcolemma – plasma membrane of muscle cell  Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm of a muscle  Muscle types o Skeletal  Striated  Each muscle fiber is a muscle cell; they all run right next to each other very compactly  Multinucleated - more than one nucleus per cell  Nuclei get pushed toward edges  Voluntary – can determine when it contracts and how much force it contracts with o Cardiac  Striated  Uninucleated - only one nucleus per cell  Involuntary  Intercalated discs – communicating junction between neighboring cells (channel protein of one cell has fused with channel protein of other cell, forming a gap junction and conexon) o Smooth  Non-striated  Uninucleated  Nuclei are stretched  Involuntary  Classification Criteria o Striations o Nervous control o Number of nuclei  Nervous tissue o Neurons – create electrical impulses; 50% of tissue o Allows us to detect stimuli; turns energy into electrical impulses and transfers them o Neuroglia – nerve glue; holds neurons together; supports and protects them; 50%


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