Anatomy & Physiology - Tissues
Anatomy & Physiology - Tissues 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I
80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
Reviews for Anatomy & Physiology - Tissues
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/13/16
Tissues Tissue - 2 or more cells put together that work together for a common task Histology – study of tissues Epithelial tissue o Covering and lining ALL free body surfaces are covered with this Exposed to external environment i.e. skin; inside of mouth (food is external); lining of respiratory and reproductive tracts tissue with a whole bunch of white space next to it o glandular i.e. glands; adrenal gland if it produces something that is secreted, probably glandular functions of epithelial tissue o establish boundaries – separates internal from external o protection – pathogens have to get through epithelial tissue to do harm o absorption o filtration – (selective absorption); based on size o excretion o secretion – produces something to be released; i.e. glandular o sensory reception – ability to respond to stimuli boundaries o apical surface – free surface; exposed to external environment; superficial surface o basal surface – deep portion; part that is away from the external environment; attached to something underneath it usually connective tissue is under epithelial tissue there are usually connections such as desmosomes between cells making up tissues basement membrane o basal lamina thin line non-cellular sheet of glycoproteins adhesive sheet of proteins holds tissue in place; selective filter all living cells need to be supplied with blood but epithelial tissues are avascular (no blood vessels) – blood delivered to connective tissue and then diffuses through tissue in order to get to epithelial tissue o reticular lamina collection of collagen fibers right under basal lamina strengthens attachment between epithelium and underlying tissue covering and lining epithelium o simple only have one layer typically function for absorption and filtration areas that aren’t exposed to a lot of friction o stratified composed of more than one layer of cells major function is protection areas that are exposed to a lot of friction (i.e. skin on bottom of foot) stratified = 2 or more layers o pseudostratified only one layer thick but looks like more because nuclei are all over found in parts of the body that aren’t exposed to a lot of movement; like lining the respiratory tract o squamous flat shape of cells on apical surface o cuboidal box-like same width as height o columnar column-shaped taller than it is wide o transitional dome cells on apical surface line hollow cavities (i.e. urinary bladder) when cavity is empty, cells are dome-shaped when cavity is full, cells change to flat no stretch in cavity glandular epithelium o composes glands – cell or group of cells of specialized epithelium that secrete substances into ducts, onto surfaces r into the blood o where they secrete it depends on gland some secrete right where it needs to act some release secretion onto surface of cell some secrete into bloodstream, which travels to another part of the body o requires energy to produce its secretory products package it up to secrete it out of epithelium o most glands produce a water-based secretion, but some fat- based types of glands o exocrine secrete into a duct sometimes secretes onto own cell surface i.e. sweat glands, gallbladder o endocrine do not have ducts; duct-less secrete hormones hormones travel in the bloodstream to go somewhere else i.e. thyroid, pancreas (part endocrine, part exocrine) structural classification of glands o unicellular one cell i.e. mucous glands produces mucus (contains protein mucin) find this lining the digestive tract; prevents us from digesting our own digestive tract goblet cells o multicellular more than one cell can break down these into further distinctions functional classification (how its released) o merocrine gland cells produce their secretory product, package it in golgi apparatus, and release vesicle through exocytosis into duct, then it travels cell stays around & active i.e. salivary gland, sweat gland, pancreas o holocrine gland cell produces product and stores it as a cellular inclusion; cell is then sloughed off into duct; cell bursts open and releases contents; cell dies mitosis replaces the cell i.e. sebaceous glands (oil glands associated with hair) connective tissues o all derived from same embryonic tissue mesenchyme middle embryonic layer o connective tissue proper areolar, elastic, dense regular, etc… o cartilage elastic, fibro, etc… o bone compact or spongy o blood only liquid tissue of the body o all contain same structural elements structural elements o ground substance – background matrix blood - liquid bone – solidified o fibers collagen fibers give it strength elastic fibers give it ability to stretch o cells fibroblast, osteocyte, chondrocyte, etc Muscle tissue o Tissue that is modified for contraction o Respond to a stimulus by contracting o Provide movement and/or heat As muscle contracts, it generates heat o All contain: Sarcolemma – plasma membrane of muscle cell Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm of a muscle Muscle types o Skeletal Striated Each muscle fiber is a muscle cell; they all run right next to each other very compactly Multinucleated - more than one nucleus per cell Nuclei get pushed toward edges Voluntary – can determine when it contracts and how much force it contracts with o Cardiac Striated Uninucleated - only one nucleus per cell Involuntary Intercalated discs – communicating junction between neighboring cells (channel protein of one cell has fused with channel protein of other cell, forming a gap junction and conexon) o Smooth Non-striated Uninucleated Nuclei are stretched Involuntary Classification Criteria o Striations o Nervous control o Number of nuclei Nervous tissue o Neurons – create electrical impulses; 50% of tissue o Allows us to detect stimuli; turns energy into electrical impulses and transfers them o Neuroglia – nerve glue; holds neurons together; supports and protects them; 50%
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'