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Human Development Chapter 4 Notes

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development Chapter 4 Notes HD 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Human Development > HD 101 > Human Development Chapter 4 Notes
Meghan Skiba
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Class notes on Chapter 4 in Human Development
Intro To HUman Development
Erin Miller
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Erin Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro To HUman Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Human Development Chapter 3 September 1, 2016 THE F IRSTTWO YEARS : ODY AND M IND Growth in Infancy Weight at birth: 7 lbs at 24 months: 28 lbs Length at birth: 20 in at 24 months: 34 in Sleep 15-17 hours a day active sleep high proportion of REM (rapid eye movement) depends on brain development – sleep through the night Opposing Perspectives Where should babies sleep? some babies are separated from parents while sleeping: bed vs crib/ together Brain Development Prenatal and postnatal brain growth (head circumference) is crucial for later cognition Head sparing is a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition Brain Basics Cortex: outer layers of the brain where thinking, feeling, and sensing occurs Prefrontal Cortex: area of cortex at the front of the brain that manages anticipation, planning, and impulse control Neurons: one of billion nerve cells in the CNS Axons: fibers that extend from neurons and transmit impulses from neuron to dendrites of other neurons Dendrites: fibers extending from neurons that receives impulses from other neurons via axons Synapses: intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron Neurotransmitter: brain chemical that carries info from axon of a sending neuron to dendrites of receiving neuron Connecting: the two cell bodies of neurons grow axons and dendrites to each other’s neurons dendrites grow and disappear, as the person continues thinking Brain Development Experience and Pruning specifics of brain structure and growth depend on genes and maturation, but even more on experience early dendrite growth is called transient exuberance unused dendrites whither (pruning) to allow space between neurons in the brain, allowing more synapses and thus more complex thinking (sculpting) experience expectant experience dependent Implications for Caregivers: Harm and Protection Infants NEED Stimulation playing, allowing varied sensations, and encouraging movement Infants NEED protection shaken baby syndrome is a life threatening injury that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections Infants have an inborn drive to remedy deficits (self-righting) Moving and Perceiving: Senses Sensory development precedes intellectual and motor development Sensation response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus Perception mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation Perception follows sensation infants’ brains are especially attuned to their own repeated social experiences and perception occurs infant brain and auditory capacity to hear sounds in the usual speech range the parts of the cortex dedicated to the senses develop rapidly Moving and Perceiving: Hearing Sense of Hearing develops during the last trimester of pregnancy most advanced of the newborn’s senses speech perception by four months after birth Vision least mature sense at birth newborns focus between four and thirty inches away experience and maturation of visual cortex improve shape recognition, visual scanning, and details binocular vision between 2 and 4 months depth perception is usually present by three months, but understanding depth requires experience. Tasting and Smelling smell and taste function at birth and rapidly adapt to the social world foods of culture may aid survival adaptation occurs for both of these senses Touch and Pain sense of touch is major in infants all newborns respond to being securely held; they prefer specific touches some touches may experience expectant for normal growth pain and temperature are connected to touch Reflexes Necessary for Survival Oxygen breathing hiccups and sneezes thrashing Body Temperature crying shivering tucking legs close to body pushing away blankets when hot Feeding sucking rooting spitting up Not Necessary for Survival Babinski reflex Stepping reflex Swimming reflex Palmar grasping reflex Moro reflex Gross Motor Skills every basic motor skill develops over the first two years of life Sequence of emerging skills: Sitting unsupported standing, holding on crawling standing walking well walking backward running jumping up Fine Motor Skills physical abilities involving small body movement, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin shaped by culture and opportunity Combining Senses and Skills three interacting elements underlying motor skills muscle strength brain maturation practice furthers three goals social interaction comfort learning Surviving in Good Health Immunizations – unsade for embryos, newborns, people with compromised immune systems primes the body’s immune system to resist a particular disease Sudden Infant Death Syndrome most deaths were sleeping position related others were due to low birthweight, exposure to cigarette smoke, soft blankets or pillows, bed sharing, and body abnormalities Test Question: Involving MMR and Autism study was done trying to connect the two – was very unethical, however, was published MMR cannot cause autism Surviving in Nutrition Adequate nutrition: breastfeeding breastfed babies are less likely to develop allergies, asthma, obesity, and heart disease Effects of Malnutrition brains may not develop normally protection against common diseases may be reduced some diseases result directly from malnutrition (marasmus and kwashiorkor) Infant Cognition: Piaget Assimilation: type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation: type of adaptation in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences Sensorimotor Intelligence: Piaget’s term for the way infants think – through senses and motor skills – during the first period of cognitive development Information Processing Theory: modeled on computer functioning, involves step by step description, adds insight to understanding of cognition at every age Early Memory: memory improves monthly – very young infants can remember Language: The Universal Sequence Listening and Responding Child directed speech: high pitched, simplified, and repetitive Babbling extended repetition of certain syllables such as ba-ba-ba, that begins between 6 to 9 months gradual imitation of accents, cadence, consonants, and gestures First Words at about one year, babies speak a few words spoken vocabulary increases gradually Holophrase: single word used to express a complete, meaningful thought Verbs and Nouns naming explosion vocabulary reaches 50 expressed words, and then builds rapidly 21 month olds say twice as many words as 18 month olds ratio of nouns to verbs vary from place to place Putting Words Together grammar includes all the devices by which words communicate meaning sequences, prefixes, suffixes, intonation, volume, verb forms, pronouns, negations, prepositions, etc. proficiency in grammar correlates with sentence length Theory One: Learning Approach Infants need to be taught B. F. Skinner noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced Parents are expert teachers, and other caregivers help them teach children to speak Theory Two: Social Interaction Approach Social interaction fosters infant language infants communicate because humans have evolved as social beings each culture has practices that further social interaction, including talking Infants teach themselves language learning is innate; adults need not teach it, nor is it a by-product of social interaction Chomsky: language is too complex to be mastered through step by step conditioning


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