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Human Development Chapter 3 Notes

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development Chapter 3 Notes HD 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Human Development > HD 101 > Human Development Chapter 3 Notes
Meghan Skiba

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Chapter 3 notes taken in Human Development Class
Intro To HUman Development
Erin Miller
Class Notes
Human Development
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Erin Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro To HUman Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Human Development Chapter 4 September 8, 2016 The First Two Years: The Social World At About This Time: Developing Emotions Birth – distress, contentment 6 weeks – social smile 3 months – laughter, curiosity 4 months – full responsive smiles 4-8 months – anger 9-14 months – fear of social events 12 months – fear of unexpected sights 18 months – self awareness Emotional Development Early emotions high emotional responsiveness pain pleasure Crying typical – hurt, hungry, tired, frightened colic: uncontrollable, reflux and immature swallowing excessive Smile and laughing social smile (6 weeks) laughter (3 to 4 months) Anger first expressions at around 6 months healthy response to frustrations Sadness indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol stressful experience for infants Fear emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations Stranger Wariness infant cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close Separation Anxiety tears, dismay, or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves if it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder Toddler’s Emotions anger and fear become less frequent and more focused laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating temper tantrums may appear New Emotions pride shame embarrassment disgust guilt Self-Awareness person’s realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people Mirror Recognition classic experiment by Lewis and Brooks, 1978 babies aged 9-24 looked into a mirror after a red dot had been put on their noses none of the babies younger than 12 months reacted to the mark 15 to 24 month old babies showed self-awareness by touching their own noses with curiosity Brain and Emotions All reactions begin in the brain growth of synapses and dendrites is related to gradual refinement and expression of each emotion this is the result of past experiences and ongoing maturation Experience and culture promote specific connections between neurons and emotions (cultural sponge) shape functional anatomy of self-representation Social Anxiety stronger than any other anxiety for many; genetic and environmental influences Growth of The Brain: Stress Emotions affected by genes, past experiences, and additional hormones and neurotransmitters excessive fear and stress harm the developing brain abuse (form of chronic stress) Brain and Emotions: Temperament Temperament biologically based core of individual differences in style of approach and response to the environment that is stable across time and situations Three dimensions of temperament effortful control negative mood exuberant Development of Social Bonds Synchrony coordinated, rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant Synchrony in the first few months becomes more frequent and elaborate helps infants learn to read others’ emotions and to develop the skills of social interaction Attachment lasting emotional bond that one person has with another begins to form in early infancy and influences a person’s close relationships throughout life Attachment Types Insecure Avoidant Attachment (A) Secure Attachment (B) Insecure Resistant/Ambivalent Attachment (C) Disorganized Attachment (D) Development of Social Bonds: Measuring Attachment Strange situation a laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants’ reactions to the stress of various adults’ comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom Key observed behaviors exploration of the toys reaction to the caregiver’s departure reaction to the caregiver’s return Insights from Romania In the late 1980s, thousands of Romanian children were part of international adoptions infants adopted before 6 months fared best; those adopted after 6 months often suffered a variety of adverse outcomes Development of Social Bonds Social referencing seeking emotional responses or information from other people observing someone else’s expressions and reactions and using the other person as a social reference Parental social referencing mothers use a variety of expressions, vocaliations, and gestures to convey social information to their infants Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development Psychoanalytic Theory FREUD: oral (first year) and anal stages (second year) potential conflicts oral fixation anal personality Psychosocial Theory ERIKSON: trust and autonomy stages trust vs mistrust: infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met autonomy vs shame and doubt: toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self rule over their actions and their bodies early problems: an adult who is suspicious and pessimistic (mistrusting) or who is easily shamed (insufficient autonomy) can be created Behaviorism BANDURA: social learning theory parents mold an infant’s emotions and personality through reinforcement and punishment gender roles are learned behavior patterns acquired by observing the behavior of others Cognitive Theory working model: set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences the child’s interpretation of early experiences is more important than the experiences themselves new working models can be developed based on new experiences or reinterpretation of previous experiences Effects of Parenting Proximal parenting caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching Distal parenting caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and face to face communication with minimal holding and touching


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