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A&P II Endocrine System Outline

by: Chantay Harris

A&P II Endocrine System Outline Bio 222

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Chantay Harris


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Filled in outline from the notes we took on the endocrine system in class.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Winters
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chantay Harris on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 222 at Towson University taught by Dr. Winters in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
A&P 214 Endocrine Lecture Fall 2016 Vocabulary Peptide A chain of amino acids linked by a peptide bond Protein A large polypeptide with a complex structure Paracrine of, relating to, or denoting a hormone that has effect only in the vicinity of the gland secreting it Endocrine secreting internally; specifically :  producing secretions that are distributed in the body by way of the bloodstream Exocrine producing, being, or relating to a secretion that is released outside its source Hormone A chemical that is secreted by one cell and travels through the bloodstream to affect the activities of cells in another part of the body Hydrophilic Freely associating with water; readily entering into solution; water-loving HydrophobicIncapable of freely associating with water molecules; insoluble; water-fearing Specificity the condition of participating in or catalyzing only one or a few chemical reactions Saturation the act or result of supplying so much of something that no more is wanted Transcription The encoding of genetic instructions on a strand of mRNA Translation The process of peptide formation from the instructions carried by an mRNA strand Amplificationto further a stimulus; a usually massive replication of genetic material and especially of a gene or DNA sequence Modulation to change or adjust (something) so that it exists in a balanced or proper amount Stress Any situation that disrupts homeostasis or our physical well being Chronic Habitual or long term Acute Sudden in onset, typically severe in intensity and brief in duration Aggravate Dysfunction the state of being unable to function in a normal way Mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication (Table 18.1) • Direct communication gap junction cells must touch each other • Synaptic communication nervous system, action potentials, neurotransmitters, fast response, short term • Paracrine communication chemical, travels locally to nearby cells • Endocrine communication – hormones chemicals released onto bloodstream , bind to specific , slow response , lasts longer • Overview of the endocrine system (Fig 18.1) What do hormones do? Alters whats going on in the cells by changing the types of proteins/enzymes, the activities, or the amount present or being made by the cells Hormone structure (figure) • Steroids (Figure) o derived from cholesterol o ex: testosterone,calcitrol o HYDROPHOBIC • Monoamines o synthesized from tyrosine or tryptophan o catecholamines ▪ HYRDOPHILIC ▪ norepinephrine, epinephrine, elopamine o thyroid hormones ▪ HYDROPHOBIC ▪ thyroxine, triiodothryronine, calcitonin o pineal hormone ▪ HYDROPHILIC ▪ Melatonin • Peptide hormones o Synthesized from DNA translation o TWO TYPES: ▪ SMALL: (Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, growth hormone: ▪ GLYCOPROTEINS (LARGE): large chains with carbohydrates (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone ▪ ALL HYDROPHILIC o glycoproteins Hormone transport • (figure) • HYDROPHILIC HORMONES can mix in blood but cannot cross cell membranes • HYDROPHOBIC HORMONES bind to hydrophilic transport protein to travel but can cross cell membranes Hormone receptors to have an effect, formones MUST bind to a specific receptor on a cell or inside target cells o Steroid and Thyroid Hormone receptors [Fig 18.4a, b] ▪ nucleus (steroid)/ mitochondria (thyroid) ▪ activate/deactivate genes ▪ effect takes several hours to days (because transcription and translation are slow) oPeptides and Catecholamines (membrane hormone receptors) ▪not lipid soluble (have to knock on door) ▪no direct effect; must rely on second messenger ▪Second messengers •cAMP •cGMP • cell response is fast b/c it doesn't require translation or transcription • hormones can use multiple second messenger o ADH uses Ca 2+in smooth muscle and cAMP in kidney tubules •Adenylate cyclase [Fig 18.3a] •Calcium [Fig 18.3b] ocalmodulin oAmplification [Figure] xdxxd Modulation of target cell sensitivity • upregulation increased receptors, more sensitive • downregulation decreased receptors, less sensitive Hormone clearance (how long it sticks around) o most hormones degraded by liver and kidney o hormones bound to transport protein stay in blood several weeks (thyroid=2wks) o free (unbound) hormone lasts only a few mins-hrs (growth hormone- 6-20 min) Stress- Three Stages • Alarm Reaction (immediate response) “fight or flight” o mediated by epinephrine and norepinephrine o prepare the body for a reaction/response o mobilization of glycogen and lipid reserves o increased mental awareness o changes in circulation, increased sweat gland secretion, increased heart rate and respiratory rate • Resistance Stage ( longer thann a few hours) o glycogen used up in a few hours, body starts using alternative fuels o mediated by cortisol o immune system weakens o mobilization of remaining energy reserves; lipids released o conservation of glucose o elevation of blood glucose o Conservation of salts and water loss of K+ and H+ • Exhaustion Stage o depleted fat storage o rapid decline in body function o wasting of body o adrenal cortex shuts down o organ failure o Exhaustion of lipid reserves o Damage to vital organs o Inability to produce glucocorticoids o Failure of electrolyte balance *Chronic Stress leads to o Cardiovascular disease o Illness o Weight Gain o Problems with memory and concentration o Sleep disorders o Anxiety and Depression Review questions 1. Define hormone. A chemical that is secreted by one cell and travels through the bloodstream to affect the activities of cells in another part of the body 2. Describe paracrine communication. chemical, travels locally to nearby cells 3. Identify four mechanisms of intercellular communication. Direct, synaptic, paracrine, endocrine 4. How could you distinguish between a neural response and an endocrine response on the basis of response time and duration? Neural= quicker response, shorter duration Endocrine= slower response, longer duration 5. How would the presence of a substance that inhibits the enzyme adenylate cyclase affect the activity of a hormone that produces its cellular effects by way of the second messenger cAMP? The enzyme would not be able to create a cell response, because if the adenylate cyclase is not activate, ATP will not be turned into cAMP and thus inhibits enzyme activation that starts the cell response. 6. What primary factor determines each cell’s hormonal sensitivities? The number of receptors that the cell possesses 7. Insulin decreases blood glucose levels and glucagon increases blood glucose levels. This is an example of which type of hormonal interaction? 8. What is the primary difference in the way the nervous and endocrine systems communicate with their target cells? Nervous system= goes through integration center and the signal is sent back to receptors. Endocrine= hormones float around like spam until a cell needs them 9. In what ways can a hormone modify the activities of its target cells? • Types of proteins/enzymes made by cells • Activities of the cells • Amount of cells present/made by the cell 10. A researcher observes that stimulation by a particular hormone induces a marked increase in the activity of G proteins in the target plasma membrane. The hormone being studied is probably a. a steroid c. testosterone e. aldosterone b. a peptide d. estrogen 11. Why do corticosteroids and thyroid hormones require transport proteins to travel in the bloodstream? They are hydrophobic 12. Explain how one hormone molecule can activate millions of enzyme molecules. One hormone can activate the next, which activates the next, and the next, so on and so forth. 13. What is meant by half-life? The amount of time it takes for a radioactive substance to lose half of its radioactivity 14. How do hormones work together or against one another? Together (?)


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