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Basic Concepts - CHEM 1010 (Chapter 1)

by: Brandon Tan

Basic Concepts - CHEM 1010 (Chapter 1) CHEM 1090-011

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Chemistry > CHEM 1090-011 > Basic Concepts CHEM 1010 Chapter 1
Brandon Tan

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About this Document

Notes over basic concepts in CHEM 1010
Elementary Chemistry
Samantha L. Schachermeyer
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Tan on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1090-011 at University of Toledo taught by Samantha L. Schachermeyer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Elementary Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Basic Concepts – CHEM 1010 (Chapter 1)  Types of Chemistry o Organic – Most compounds of Carbon. o Inorganic – All elements and compounds that aren’t organic. o Analytical – Finding which and how much compound is present. o Physical – Properties of substances. o Biochemistry – Living things.  Classification of Matter o Chemistry if the study of matter. It is defined as anything that has mass and occupies space. o The atom is the smallest particle of an element. Atoms bound together to form molecules. o An element is the simplest form of matter. o A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically bound in fixed proportions. Compounds can be separated into pure components. Elements and compounds are pure substances. o A mixture is a sample of two or more substances that are physically intermingled. Mixtures have properties related to their components, but don't have definite compositions. Mixtures can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. o Chemical changes produce compounds. Physical changes produce mixtures.  Properties o Properties are characteristics by which we identify something. o Properties can be physical, no change in chemical composition, or chemical, how substances can react. o Properties can also be extensive, depends on quantity, or intensive, does not depend on quantity. We call these quantitative properties.  Matter & Energy o Mass of the object measures how much matter is in the object. It is also proportional to weight. o Energy is the capacity to do work. o Law of conservation of mass: Mass is neither destroyed or created, in a nonnuclear change. 2 o Law of conservation of energy: Like mass, energy can neither be destroyed nor created in a nonnuclear change. It can change forms, however.  Chemical Symbols o Humans have discovered 113 elements and 82 of them are naturally found on earth. o Major elements of the human body: Element Percentage Composition Hydrogen 63% Oxygen 25.5% Carbon 9.45% Nitrogen 1.35%  Periodic Table o Horizontal rows are called periods. o Vertical rows are called groups (or families). 3  Laws, Hypothesis, and Theories o A large group of scientific observations in one statement is called a law. It can be a general statement about observable facts and enables us to predict what will happen in a certain situation. o A statement that tries to prove that a law is true is called a hypothesis. If the hypothesis is generally accepted, it becomes a theory. 4


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