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COMM 1313 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Art

COMM 1313 Chapter 1 Notes COMM 1313H

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Notes over Chapter 1 of "The Speaker" (book for COMM 1313)
Public Speaking
Ryan Gliszinski
Class Notes
public speaking
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Art on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1313H at University of Arkansas taught by Ryan Gliszinski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Business at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
1. Public speaking and classical education  a. Classical Greek were the first to put emphasis on developing oratorical skills i. Iliad and Odyssey contained many long speeches  b. Greek democratic city­states called for citizens to make speeches to discuss  public policy and argue cases in court 1. No lawyers at time a. Many failed or prevailed in court based on ability to speak c. Sophists i. Definition 1. Greeks who taught others how to publicly speak well  a. Traveled from citystate to citystate selling their instruction i. Little to no consistency ii. Gorgias (480­376 B.C.) 1. Famous sophist a. Relationship of speaker and audience is linear i. “Magical language” moved audiences iii. Protagoras (484­414 B.C.) 1. Anything and everything could be argued a. Know both sides  i. See which is better and more accurate d. The Formal Greek Schools 1. Produced politicians and thinkers ii. The School of Isocrates 1. Isocrates was Athenian ­ differs from Sophists (who traveled)  because he was stationed 2. Opened a school to focus on speech and rhetoric  a. Rigorous entrance requirements i. Best and brightest b. Thought that a person's capacity to know things was  limited i. Expecting to know the right course of action in  every situation and on every issue was impossible  1. Well Informed, yet incomplete, opinion 2. Good speakers = morally sound individuals  who could discern right from wrong c. Emphasized an amplified rhetoric d. Kairos i. Timing and recognition of the needs of the occasion 1. Isocrates believed kairos was unteachable  through a handbook and only through  extensive repetition and exposure to civic  life iii. Plato’s Academy 1. Plato was not liked by Sophists and Isocrates 2. Plato was a student of Socrates a. Used as a character many times 3. Believed it was dangerous and not conducive to living “a good life” in which understanding justice and living were the ultimate goal for an individual 4. Regered to rhetoric as “a knack” a. Sophists trained people to achieve goals through use of  persuasion that used language to manipulate  i. Believed that education should focus on philosophy (search for truth) rather than persuasion  1. Rhetoric = flattery 2. Philosophy = inquiry into the truth of things 5. Not everyone was capable of seeking and knowing the truth a. Only people who could tell the difference between good  and bad could lead the people and be philosophers  iv. Aristotle’s Lyceum  1. Aristotle (384­322 B.C.) was one of Pluto’s students 2. Hired by Philip of Macedon to tutor his son a. Macedon’s son became Alexander the Great i. Opened the Lyceum after done with Alexander 3. Regarded the teachings of Isocrates and Sophists and inadequate a. Didn’t share Plato’s mistrust of rhetoric  i. Saw it as beneficial in free society 4. Believed in three (3) types of knowledge  a. Techne i. Experiential knowledge 1. Of particular things based on our  interactions with the world around us a. We are aware we know something  because we have experienced it b. Episteme i. Universal knowledge 1. Understanding about the common  characteristics of like materials ii. Public speaking allowed sharing of this type of  knowledge c. Intermediate knowledge i. Knowing what does not reflect an excess or a  defect but instead what is intuitively correct to the  person 5. Taught interconnection of three (3) parts of persuasion ­ referred  to them as artistic proof ­ inartistic proof is the evidence, data and  documents that exist outside of the speaker and audience a. Ethos i. Credibility b. Logos i. logic c. Pathos i. Emotional dimensions 6. Taught three (3) virtues of style a. Clarity i. Articulation b. Correctness i. Accuracy of information c. Propriety i. Good behavior and faithfulness to what one  considers moral and just 7. Rhetors a. Speakers 2. Cicero and the Practice of Rhetoric a. Cicero (106­43 B.C.) i. One of the most influential figures in history of rhetoric 1. Roman educated a. Rose to Consul i. Highest position in Roman Republic ii. Wrote De Republica and De Oratore, which were sequels to his earliest  publication on speech De Inventione 1. De Inventione was written in teen years and is compilation of  educational approaches while the others are more sophisticated  and original thought on the subject b. Broke the speech­making process into five (5) component parts i. Invention 1. Identification of the best arguments for the case a. Creative dimension of speech i. Fact finding ii. Arrangement 1. Most effective organization of case  a. Based on topic and audience i. Requires understanding of both iii. Style  1. Word choice 2. Phrasing 3. Level of formality  a. Must fit situation  iv. Delivery 1. Manner in which one physically and vocally preets the speech a. More emphasis on this now than what Cicero put on it v. Memory 1. One’s ability to both use his or her memory to recall names and  important information in the middle of a speech  2. As well as to deliver a cogent speech without notes a. Less emphasis on this now than what Cicero put on it i. Technology c. Quintilian’s Public School i. Founded with grant funds 1. Also used funds to write De Institune Oratoria  a. 12 book manual for becoming the perfect speaker ii. Five (5) principal duties for any speaker 1. Defend truth 2. Protect the innocent 3. Prevent criminal behavior 4. Inspire the military 5. Inspire the public d. Contemporary scholars and the speech communication i. The Linear Model of Communication  1. Created by mathematician Claude E. Shannon 2. Designed to teach people to communicate over telephones a. One way (linear) communication 3. Seven (7) components a. Sender i. One who delivers the message b. Encoding i. Process of attaching symbols to ideas and feelings  so that others understand them c. Message i. Subject matter/ content d. Channel i. Mode through which the message is conveyed e. Noise i. Disruptive forces in the transmission  f. Receiver i. Person who receives the message 1. Not always the intended recipient  g. Decoding i. Making sense of the message received ii. The Transactional Model of Communication  1. Not a one­way form of communication  2. Builds off the seven (7) components of The Linear Model  a. Adds an eighth (8th) component i. Feedback 1. The responses and reactions the the  messages transmitted ­ sent back to the  original sender 3. Speech as a Force in Our Lives a. Civic Engagement i. Acting upon a sharp awareness of one's own sense of responsibility to his or her community ii. Ability to communicate with each other through public speech b. The Mediated World i. Messages 24/7 1. As opposed to times of Roman or Greek with few messages


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