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Physiology and Anatomy

by: Rachel Notetaker

Physiology and Anatomy

Rachel Notetaker

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Class Notes
Physiology, anatomy




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Northwestern - St. Paul taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Physiology in Science at University of Northwestern - St. Paul.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Chapter 1 ­ An Introduction to Studying the Human Body  I. 1.1 ­ Anatomy and Physiology Directly Affect Your Life  ○ How body works under normal and abnormal conditions  ○ Homeostasis ­ relatively constant internal environment  ○ Oldest medical science  II. 1.2 ­ Good Study Strategies are Crucial for Success  ○ Attendance  ○ Time management  ○ Don’t procrastinate  ○ Memorization  ○ Get help when needed  III. 1.3 ­ Anatomy is Structure, and Physiology is Function  ○ Anatomy vs. physiology  ■ The word anatomy has greek roots   ■ Anatomy​ which means “cutting open” is the study of ​internal and  external structures of the body​ and the physical ​relationships  among body parts (Structure)  ● Ex. examines how a particular muscle attaches to the  skeleton  ■ Physiology, ​  another greek term, is the study of ​how living  organisms perform their vital functions (Function)  ● Ex. someone studying physiology might consider how a  muscle contracts or what forces a contracting muscle exerts  on the skeleton  ■ Anatomy uses a special language   ○ Medical Terminology​ ­ involves the use of word roots, prefixes,  suffixes,and combining forms to construct terms related to the body in  health and disease  ■ Many of the terms are derived from ​Greek​ and L ​ atin  ■ Ex. cardiology   ○ 4 basic building blocks of medical terms   ■ Word roots​ ­ are the basic, meaningful parts of a term that cannot  be broken down into another term with another definition  ■ Prefixes​ ­ word elements that are attached to the beginning of  words to modify their meaning but cannot stand alone.  ■ Suffixes​ ­ word elements or letters added to the end of a word or  word part to form another term  ■ Combining forms​ ­ independent word or word roots that occur in  combination with words  ■ Ex. pathology  ● Path­ refers to disease   ● Ology­ means “study of”  ● Pathology is the study of disease   IV. 1.4 ­ Anatomy and Physiology are Closely Related  ○ All specific functions are are performed by specific structures  ○ Anatomy  ■ Gross Anatomy   ● Or ​macroscopic anatomy  ​ involves the examination of  relatively large structures and features usually visible with  the unaided eye  ● Surface anatomy​ ­ the study of general form and superficial  markings (s​ urface​)  ● Regional anatomy​ ­ focuses on anatomical organizations of  specific areas​ of the body such as head, neck, or trunk  ● Systemic anatomy​ ­ the study of the structure of o ​ rgan  systems, ​  which are groups of organs that function together  in a coordinated manner   ● Developmental anatomy​ ­ describes changes in form that  occur between conception and physical maturity  (​embryo➡adult​)  ● Clinical anatomy​ ­ includes a number of subspecialties  important in clinical practice  ■ Microscopic Anatomy  ● Structure that cannot be seen without magnification  ● Cytology  ○ Study of internal structures of the ​cells​ (smallest unit  of life)  ● Histology  ○ Examination of t ​ issues  ○ Physiology  ■ Human physiology ­ study of the functions of the human body  ● Cell physiology​ ­ study of the function of ​cells​ (chemical  and molecular levels too)  ● Organ physiology​ ­ study of the physiology of s ​ pecific  organs  ● Systemic physiology​ ­ studies all aspects of function of  specific ​ rgan systems  ● Pathological physiology​ ­ study of effect of ​diseases​ on  organ function or system function  V. 1.5 ­ Levels of Organization Process From Molecules to a Complete Organism  ○ Atoms  ■ Smallest stable unit of nature  ○ Molecules  ■ Atoms combine to form molecules  ○ Cells (include organelles)  ■ Molecules interact to form organelles  ■ Organelles are structural and functional components of cells  (​smallest living unit in the body)  ○ Tissues  ■ Group of cells working together=tissue  ■ Specific functions  ○ Organs  ■ Tissue makes up organs  ■ Performs several functions  ○ Organ Systems  ■ Group of organs working together to perform specific tasks  ■ Systems  ● Integumentary  ● Skeletal  ● Muscular  ● Nervous  ● Endocrine  ● Cardiovascular  ● Lymphatic  ● Respiratory   ● Digestive  ● Urinary  ● Reproductive (male, female)  ○ Organism  ■ Highest level of organization  ■ All organ systems must work together to maintain health in an organism 


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