SMAD 101 Week 2
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charles Smith on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
DAY FOUR: The two types of innovations are sustaining innovations, which make a product better, and disruptive innovations, which disrupt the natural process of a product (like a replacement that is more efficient or popular). Sustaining innovations don't threaten the market, like a transition from a regular typewriter, to an electric typewriter. An example of a disruptive innovations is the transition from a typewriter to a computer. Diffusion of Innovations: 1. Saffo’s 30 year rule states that during the first decade, there is a lot of excitement, and little actual penetration into the market. For example, people were excited when the television was first exposed to the market, but not everyone got one right away. During the second decade, the product grows some momentum, gaining some real popularity, and becoming a regular household, or community product. For example, televisions were popular and wondrous products, people enjoyed it, and most people wanted it. By the third decade, the product is often taken for granted. When is the last time you realized how amazing the concept of television is? 2. Roger’s 5 critical attributes of successful diffusion- 2.1. Relative Advantage- Is the innovation better than its predecessor? 2.2. Compatibility- Is this innovation something that goes well with the target audiences standard habits? 2.3. Complexity- Is this innovation too complex for people to understand? 2.4. Observability- Is this innovation getting enough exposure to succeed? 2.5. Reliability- Does this product do what it's supposed to do? 2.6. There has been an adaptation, (or innovation?), to this model, it is known as Fidler’s sixth principle. Is this product familiar enough? Familiarity links the innovations to the past. Previous innovations, the original product, other innovations. For example, there are currently dozens of products that intend to add wifi, even strollers! Society is now familiar with the concept, so it's a common innovation. 3. Steven Johnson’s 10/10 rule says that a product takes about 10 years to both think of and create, and 10 years to indoctrinate itself into the market. Stages of Diffusion- 1. Awareness- the public finds the product. 2. Interest- the public wants it. 3. Decision- The public decides that they are going to buy it. 4. Trial- The public starts to have it and use it. 5. Adoption- The public can no longer imagine life without it. Digital immigrants are people who have to adopt modern digital technology, they are typically older than the digital natives, who were immersed into the digital era at a young age. Digital immigrants need to slowly phase the technology into their lives. There are different types of consumers when it comes to digital innovation. Innovators are the ones who need it first. They must get it at release or they feel left out. Early adopters are after that, and get the “new” tech after the price goes down a little bit. During the early adopter period, the takeoff event happens. The takeoff is the phase where businesses can measure how well a product will diffuse. Late adopters are after that, they get the tech after the bugs are out and the price is significantly down. Lastly, are the laggers, they don't want the new technology, for one reason or another. Factors Affecting Diffusion is easily defined by: Brian Winston’s supervising Social Necessities ● Economic ○ Meets the needs of the company ○ Purchase power of the market. ● Technological ○ Compatible with other technology ○ Good technological infrastructure ● Social ○ Acceptance of the innovation by society. ○ Need for the innovation. ● Regulation ○ Government support through the regulation agencies. ○ Trade support with the community. ANALOG: ● Continuous variation ● All information is transmitted including noise. DIGITAL: ● Takes samples of analog signals ● Translates waves into a series of 1’s and 0’s. The advantages of Digital transmission are less noise, intelligent channels, easier to manipulate, integrated networks, and easily compressible. Intelligent channels- behavior that is different depending on the nature of the content. Implications of Digital Language: Marshall McLuhan’s Global Village ● Immediate transfer of information ● Globe now smaller and more reachable ● Common experiences defined by media. Example: 9/11. The media defined it as a terrorist attack and that by moving on from we grow together as a society. There are monuments to the tragedy all over the world. Together we stand. Together we strive. Increased Speed, reach, and understanding ● Compressed messages are sent quicker ● Virtual reality could enhance immediacy of understanding. ● Protection of intellectual property ● Easier to copy and disseminate information. The mass data gets segmented and fragmented. COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND THEORY: Intrapersonal- communication with self, like a journal or a diary. Interpersonal- face-to-face communication with another or machine assisted communication with another. Mass Communication- point to multipoint, uses mass medium such as newspaper, TV, and radio. Functions of Mass Communication: Surveillance- providing newsworthy communication Correlation- interpreting information and editorializing or prescribing action. Transmission of Culture- binding people across time and distance by the education about values and social norms. Entertainment- entertaining people without necessarily offering any other functional value. Linear Communication Models: Harold Lasswell stated the pathway of communication is like filling in the blanks of, “Who says what to whom through which channel with what effect.” Shannon and Weaver Model- A Transmitter sends a message which goes through a medium and then arrives to the receiver with certain additions. THese additions are added to the message throughout the transmission process. They are: fields of experience, noise, and feedback. Noise interrupts/interferes with the message between the transmitter and the medium and between the medium and the receiver. (Static, altitude, competing signals) Fields of experience affect how well a message is given. Did the transmitter do a good job of executing the message? Did the receiver do a good job of understanding it? Are they speaking different languages? Are they speaking using any slang or colloquialisms? Feedback comes back from receiver to transmitter, starting the cycle over again. Gatekeeping Model- 1. An event happens in reality 2. An official source or Public Relations liaison delivers a message about the event. That message is intended for a specific audience. 3. An individual (like a reporter) is told of that event by the official source or P.R. liaison. 4. The message is edited depending on the medium. (Where and who is the audience of said medium? How much time do they have to deliver that message?). 5. The edited message then is delivered to the audience. SOMETIMES the P.R. Liaison will deliver the message directly to the editor or the audience. Feedback can be sent directly from the audience to the editor, from the editor to the individual, or the audience to the individual. USES OF GRATIFICATIONS THEORY: Emeel Durkham: “People take an active role in choosing media for the purpose of gratifying needs.” This means we expose ourselves to what we want to expose ourselves . Alex Tan’s typology of needs: 1. Cognitive- Conscious need to do something. 2. Affective- Emotional need, something to make you feel or not feel. 3. Personal Integrative Needs- Conversational currency. Media that gives us something to talk about. Often leads to identifying with characters. 4. Social Integrative Needs- A group of engaged consumers who want to know more and further enjoy the product. (Fandoms) 5. Escapists Needs- Our need to escape whatever ailments reality has given us. Expectancy Value Theory: ● Similar to uses and gratification, people use based on satisfying needs. ● Seek media based on expectations. ● Media has value, when it meets expectations. ● We alter our future expectations of media depending on whether they meet our needs. “This looks like something I want to see.” Play and Entertainment Theory: ● We use the media to satisfy needs for pleasure and entertainment. ● Play theory has its origins in Freud’s pleasure principle. ○ We seek to replicate pleasurable experiences through media. ○ Pleasurement determined by consumer. Dependency Theory: ● Something that appeals to everyone in some way. It becomes a dependency, and addiction. ● Three Way relationship: People who create media, audiences develop greatly, society envelops it. Variables- ● Social Stability, number of centrality of information functions served. ● 3 types of effects= cognitive, affective, behavioral. ○ cognitive - what is in the user's head? ○ Affective- How does it make users feel? ○ Behavioral- What actions will users take? Hegemony- Transmitters are controlling media. Antonio Gramsci believed that the “ruling class” of transmitters =, control how we see media by their social institutions and behavior/values. Examples of this “ruling class” include the Police and military, Educational systems,. Religions, and Media Outlets. Agenda Setting- McCombs & Shaw Media covers the “important” issues. That is the sentiment held by all transmitters. They don't tell us what to think, but what to think about. Developed form priorities of media, public, and policy makers. Media gives more attention to certain issues than others. Spiral of Silence Noelle Neumann proposed that society threatens deviant individuals with isolation. Fear of that causes people to evaluate popularity of opinions. Minority views often are not shared because of that. This is where the silence comes from. Views perceived to be dominant gain even more grans and alternatives retreat further. This is the spiral effect. Information Gap Hypothesis In our society information is the grandest form of power. The growing gap between info rich and info poor is supposedly caused by the society members level of education, and what resources are commonly available to them, i.e. computers, the internet, and mainstream media outlets, etc. The information rich are protective of those resources and information because they want to keep their advantage. If you knew somebody’s secret (information with value) would you tell the world, keep it in confidence, or hold it above their heads. Most likely you want that info to yourself one way or another. The information gap is starting earlier and earlier with people getting their first information catalyst (like a phone, computer, or tablet) at a young age. Media Bias Media Bias- built in media features that privilege some information and storytelling features while minimizing others. Partisan Bias- a position is purposely advertised and and explained. Propaganda Bias- Intention of making a case for a policy but it's not explicitly stated. Unwitting Bias- Selecting stories to be run, but time restrictions or some other factor stops everything that should be run from being run. Bias by selection- What to or what not to include? Bias by experience- Do these stories play people emotional or mental strings? Will they attract or repel them? Bias by market- Choosing to play into audience choices? Reinforces their beliefs, either corporate, (ads match audience), or government, (what government project is supported by the network/audience?).
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