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Childhood Psychology

by: Heather Glovach

Childhood Psychology Psyc 221

Heather Glovach
U of S

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Childhood Psychology
Dr. Slotterback
Class Notes
Genetics, Childhood, Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Glovach on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 221 at University of Scranton taught by Dr. Slotterback in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Childhood Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at University of Scranton.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Prenatal Development: Genetics  Chapter 3 A Historical Perspective   Concept of heredity o Historical records indicate farmers’ attempts to breed better cattle & crops th o Before the 17  century  Assumed children inherited everything from dad  E.g., Aristotle  Nature seeks to reproduce traits from the father, but fails  o When it fails to produce male offspring it is a female   Failure results in age and time of year  Males should be 37 and females 18  Winter was the best season to try to  reproduce a son   After the 17  century o Compound microscope  Preformationists & Ovists  Ovists think the pre formed embryo are in the egg not the sperm  o More popular group because the mother was to blame for a  defective son or giving birth to the daughter   Kaspar Wolf  Dealt with anatomy and physiology   Discovered that the egg and sperm unite into a single cell and  divides to form body parts  o Discovered gradual development of body parts and  embryos   Gregor Mendel o 1865 o 8 years of painstaking research  Worked with flowering sweet peas and crossed fertilized them   22 varieties of these sweet peas  o 4 conclusions  “Characters” transmitted unchanged from generation to generation  Characters are inherited attributes o Later call them genes   Parents contribute equally to each inherited attribute  It takes 2 genes to produce each characteristic  o One from each parent   Principle of dominance  When you inherit a pair of genes that are different in their effect,  the dominant gene will be expressed   Meiosis  Has to do ONLY with the gametes (sex cells)  o Eggs and sperm   Any time you produce gametes the genes for each characteristic  splits   Each gamete contains half of the chromosomes needed to produce  a human (23 in each/ 46 total needed)   Thomas Scott Morgan ­ wins Nobel prize in medicine o 1933 o Discovered that “characters” are actual structures  Genes and are part of larger bodies called chromosomes  o Chromosomes  Found in nuclei of all cells  o DNA   Makes up genes and chromosomes  Definitions  Ovum  o Eggs that are produced through meiosis when you are born  o Supplies food supply for embryo when it becomes fertilized   Sperm  o Do not produce sperm until puberty  o Takes 70 days for meiosis to complete the sperm division   Fertilization  o When sperm and the egg unite in the fallopian tube   Multiple births o 1. If two or more eggs are released from the ovary and both get fertilized   Dizygotic (fraternal) twins  o 2. If there is one egg released that divides   Monozygotic (identical) twins   Same sex twins  o 3. Fertility drugs can cause multiple births  o 4. Implantation of multiple eggs in the uterus hoping one attaches and multiple  attach   Polygenic Inheritance  o Many genes can interact to produce a certain characteristic   Genotype  o Your genetic heritage o Don’t show all of these genes    Phenotype o The way your genotype is expressed  o The observed characteristics   Physical characteristics – height   Psychological characteristics – intelligence   Reaction range o Range of possible phenotypes for each genotype  o Acknowledges the environment    Determining sex o Males determine the sex of the child   Eggs contain the X chromosome   Sperm contain the XY chromosome   XX = Female   XY = Male  o Males are more likely to be miscarried or die prematurely  o Male births are more common than female  Diseases and Abnormalities  Dominant Inheritance   No carriers o Every offspring will have that gene expressed  o No traces of the disease or abnormality in some cases   Cannot kill before reproduction  Examples o Huntington’s disease o Aaniridea  Lack an iris in your eye   Can’t control the amount of light that enters your eye  Recessive Inheritance   Follow mendel’s laws o Takes both parents contributing the gene o Heterozygous person is a carrier  One parents contributed the gene and the other parent did not  o Modifier genes  Modify the intensity of a characteristic  o Codominance  Don’t have a clear dominance of a gene   Type AB blood   Two different colored eyes  Excessive of Recessive Diseases   Cystic fibrosis o Fatal disease  o 1 in 1000 births  o Lacking of an enzyme that prevents mucus from building up in the lungs and  digestive tract   Muscular dystrophy o More than 10 forms  o Genetic disease that attacks the muscles  o Shows slurred speech, unable to walk, lose basic motor capabilities   Phenylketonuria o PKU  o Lacking an enzyme that helps digest certain foods   Can’t break down phenylalanine  o If left untreated it can cause serious problems to the nervous system  o When treated you’re put on a special diet   Tay­sachs disease o Degenerative disease of the nervous system  o Fatal  rd o Usually children will die by their 3  birthday  o Effects mainly Jewish children of Eastern European ancestry  o 1 in 30 American Jewish people are carriers   Diabetes o Cannot metabolize sugar properly because your body doesn’t produce enough  insulin  o If left untreated it can be fatal  o Controlled with insulin and diet  o 1 in 2700 children are diagnosed with diabetes  o Type II diabetes is now more common with children being overweight   Down syndrome (mutation) o Occurs because of a mutation in the genes   Not a recessive gene   There is an extra 21  chromosome  o IQ average around 50  o Congenital eye, ear, or heart defect  Genetic Counseling  Purpose   Assess likelihood o That you may have a child with a congenital defect  o Usually its people who have had a family member who has an abnormality   Use o Family history o Ethnicity & countries of origin of immigrant relatives o Intermarriages o Previous problems in childbearing process o Physical exam  All of this will be able to determine the likelihood of a person carrying a child with  defects and abnormalities  Prenatal Detection  Amniocentesis   Take a sample of amniotic fluid  Fetal body cells in fluid examined (karyotyping)  75+ diseases can be diagnosed  Must be 14 weeks pregnant Chorionic Villus Sampling   Sample of chorion taken  Same genetic analyses run  Can be done at 8  to 10   week of pregnancy Ultrasound   Scan womb with sound waves  Similar to sonar  Useful for detecting larger physical abnormalities Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling   Can detect metabolic disorders  Much riskier


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