Popular in INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
Popular in Department
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Akila Webb on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Kristin Atchinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
Reviews for Psych Week4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/13/16
Chapter 4: Development Through the Lifespan Developmental Science: understanding that we never stop changing throughout the lifespan. Interdisciplinary roots: Psych, bio, anthropology, family studies, neuroscience Theories 1. Continuous theories: gradual development 2. Discontinuous theories: understanding and responding emerge at specific times Stage theories Development isn’t clear cut Nature (environment) and nurture (genes) are interwoven bidirectional relationship -Dynamic System: complex network of biological psychological and social factors Multiple paths rather than a single path Different paths similar outcomes Prenatal Development: 1. Zygote (germinal phase)- The two weeks’ period after conception; when the sperm cell combines with can egg cell to form a zygote. The zygote then continues to multiply and become a blastocyst. The blastocyst moves along the fallopian tube and attaches to the uterus, this is called implantation. The placenta is formed through access tissue shortly after implantation. 2. Embryonic phase- The third week starts the embryonic period. The embryo begins to divide into three layers that each become a body system. The neural tube forms after 22 days which later develops into the central nervous th system including the brain and spinal cord. During the 4 week the head forms then the eyes, nose, ears, and mouth. The cardiovascular system is then formed during this week, as the blood vessel that will become the heart to start a pulse. During the 5 week buds from harm and legs. By the 8 th week the embryo has all the basic organs except the sex organs. 3. Fetal phase- The fetal stage is the longest stage of development from 9-38 weeks. The organ systems from the embryonic phase continue to develop and further develop the baby. Period of The Fetus (9-38 weeks) rd st 3 month (8-12 weeks) 1 Trimester Behavioral development differentiates Tactile memory intends cephalocaudally: infant beings to feel nd 2 Trimester (13-24 weeks) Brain development Responds to sound, light, and sucking behavior Age of viability 22-26 weeks (how early they can be born w/ medical attention.) Prenatal Environmental Influences Teratogens: any disease drug or other environmental agent that can harm a developing embryo or fetus o legal & illegal drugs o environmental pollutants o maternal disease o nutrition o stress- extreme stress o Age (35 +) o Prenatal Care Impact pf teratogen depends on genotype of organism Not universally harmful Species- specific Harm particular structures during particular points in development Effects during periods of rapid change How Teratogens Influence Development Same defect can be caused by different teratogens Different results from same teratogen Dose and exposure influence impact Other negative factors can worsen impact of teratogen, poor nutrition other teratogens Quality of postnatal environment Teratogens in News Zika virus causing microcephaly- small head= small brains Can cause feeding problems and seizures Newborn Reflexes Innate Reflexes: born with Essential to survival Rooting reflex- helps baby w/ feeding Palmar reflex- grasping in response to pressure Startle reflex- thrust arms and legs outward Stepping reflex- mimics motion of walking Babinski reflex- fanning of toes Infantile Amnesia Lack of memory for events during infancy/toddler period Memories not stores “sense of self” essential for anchoring autobiographical memories/develops at 2 years Social interaction facilities memory Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory (Kids as Scientists) Don’t skip stages Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; conservation is the logical principle that rearranging the form of appearance of objects doesn’t necessarily change the amount or number of objects. Young children in the preoperational stage (2-6) didn’t understand the principle of conservation By the time children enter the concrete operational stage, they can apply logical reasoning to the concrete objects used in conservation tasks Stages Characteristics Sensorimotor Infant experiences would through Birth-2yrs movement and senses, develops schemas, begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of understanding object permanence Preoperational Child acquires motor skills but does not 2yrs-6yrs understand conservation of physical properties. Child begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with a basic understanding of other minds Concrete Operational Child can think logically about physical 6-11yrs objects and events understand conservation of physical properties Formal Operational Child can think logically and abstract 11yrs & up propositions and hypotheticals Vygotsky & The Sociocultural Approach (Kids as Apprentice) Cultural-historical Social origins are mental development Thoughts and action medicated by cultural events and artifacts Complex mental activities have their roots in social interaction