Ruether and Christianity from and Etic Perspective
Ruether and Christianity from and Etic Perspective 2001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca L. Moss on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2001 at Georgia State University taught by Sahar Farooqui in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Religions in Religious Studies at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Ruether and Enuma Elish Thursday, September 1, 2016 4:02 PM • Enuma Elish ○ One of many ancient Sumerian oral traditions (3000 BCE) Reworkedto celebrate the rise of Babylonia and its deity Marduk ○ Two basic narratives Creation of the world Creation of human beings ○ Family Tree (initially matriarchy) Kingu (Tiamat's partner after Tiamat is killed)-----Tiamat (salt water, Mother God)----- Apsu (Killed) Son with Apsu, Ea married Damkina Ea and Damkina had Marduk ○ Marduk killed Apsu. Tiamat wanted to kill him. Apsu killed Tiamat, and he used her body to create the cosmos. ○ Created humans to serve the gods. ○ Creates a patriarchy when Marduk destroysthe matriarchy. • RosemaryRuether (1936-Present) ○ Amercian feminist scholar and Catholic theologian ○ Argues religion provides "blueprints for society" ○ Focuses on gender and power created by religion ○ Broadens the scope of creation stories Tell of origin of existenceAND Reflect on broader cultural values of the time Effectivelymandates those values for future generations • Values and Context of Enuma Elish ○ Orientation of power 1st political states vs. tribal/nomadiccommunities Instills value of leadership and community Humans as servants=politicalservice to royalty Gender hierarchy □ Male Apsu (fresh water) vs. Female Marduk (salt water) □ Ends Tiamat's matriarchy and instills Marduk's patriarchy • Ruether: Three Classical Creation Stories ○ Claims modern Christian creation stories are a synthesis of more ancient creation stories Enuma Elish Hebrew creation story (Genesis) Plato's Timaeus ○ Draws from these sources but perpetuates only certain cultural norms and understandings ○ Ruether is catholic but approaches religion from an etic perspective • Enuma Elish and Genesis ○ Patriarchal ○ Cosmoscreated in similar order ○ Enuma Elish creates social order, Genesis doesn't ○ Genesis creates week structure ○ In Enuma Elish, order comes from violence. Gospels, "Christianity 101", Gnostic Gospels, Pagels Tuesday, September 6, 2016 3:58 PM • A gospel: an account of the life of Jesus • Jesus is the Son of God, which separates this faith from Judaism and Islam. • Jesus ○ Historically, 7-0BCE to 30-33CE ○ Prodigy: master of the Torah by age 12 ○ Baptized by John the Baptist (historicallyconsidered a rival messiah*) ○ Under Roman rule, Jewish people were looking for a messiah to save them • The Infancy Gospel of Thomas ○ Claims that Jesus killed someoneas a child in provocation.Jesus was a young child, and Joseph rebuked him. ○ Claims that Jesus blinded people who accused or upset him as a small child, Joseph rang his ears, and the child was angry. He told his earthly father not to vex him. • Jesus as a social reformer ○ Highly critical of established Jewish authority ○ Miracles ○ Eucharist, raising of Lazarus, healing demons (mental illness), healing lepers, feeding of thousands ○ Stories reflect the conquering of major social issues of the time (hunger, categories, role of women,etc) • The early church ○ Division regarding divinity/humanityof Jesus ○ At Jesus' death, church only consisted of ~150 people ○ Constantine Crucial historical figure Converts,makes Christianity the state religion • Arianism: Jesus was divine, but less divine than presented today. • Branches ○ Eastern Orthodox-Constantinople ○ Roman Catholic - Rome Protestant-Europe □ Split from Catholicism ○ CommonBeliefs: Christ as Son of God, the Virgin Birth, and the Resurrection • The Christian Bible ○ Old Testament/HebrewBible ○ New Testament ○ Council of Nicea - 325 CE Ordered by Constantinople to establish first uniform Christian doctrine. Decided which gospels would be included in the Bible □ Decided Christ is fully divine AND fully human □ Arianism is heretical ○ The Four Gospels 3 Synoptic (Mark, Matthew, Luke) John is the 4th. Introduces new things not stated in the first three ○ Mark 70CE Claim that others draw from Mark's gospel ○ Matthew 80CE ○ Luke 85CE ○ John 92CE • Nag Hammadi Some texts canonical, others Gnostic and very different ○ Some texts canonical, others Gnostic and very different • Who was Mary Magdalene?? • Gnosis: "knowledge" ○ Salvation not about grace or works, but through secret insight ○ Says Mary was the chosen disciple ○ Challenged concept of gender ○ Spirit matters,body and gender don't matter ○ Dyadic view: God is viewed in male and female ways Elaine Pagels • Says that one must look at ALL texts, canonical and otherwise • She says that the censorship of text is as important as what was included • Feminist theologian • Says heresy wasn't about God but what men at the time wanted Gnostic Gospels= Associated with Nag Hammadi
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