Islam: Intro and Brief History
Islam: Intro and Brief History 2001
Popular in Intro to World Religions
Popular in Religious Studies
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca L. Moss on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2001 at Georgia State University taught by Sahar Farooqui in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Religions in Religious Studies at Georgia State University.
Reviews for Islam: Intro and Brief History
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/13/16
Islam (Brief History, Branches, Pillars, Sacred Texts, Shari'a, Women in Islam, Sura 7) Thursday, September 8, 2016 4:07 PM • Brief History of Early Islam Extension of Abrahamic faiths ○ 610 CE Prophet Muhammed receives revelationsbelieved to be from God conveyedthrough archangel Gabriel Preached monotheism,racial and social equality ○ Meccan elite prosecuted early Muslim community.622 CE Hijra (emigration) to city of Medina ○ 629 CE Conquest of Mecca, destruction of idols of Ka'aba ○ By the time of Muhammad's death in 632 CE, all of Arabia united into single religious state ○ Islam continued to spread as a religious/social/militarymovement ○ Expanded into Persia, Byzantium, and eventually into N. Africa, Iberian Peninsula, and SE Asia • Branches ○ Sunni (75-90%) Rightly guided caliphs (person who led ummah/globalMuslim community,including diaspora) □ Those who are righteous and just could be caliphs, and should be elected by community Strictly opposes belief in divine intermediaries ○ Shi'a (10-20%) Leadership passes to Imams, descendants from Prophet Muhammad (as divine intermediaries).First was Muhammad's nephew/son-in-lawAli. ○ Sufism (not really considered a branch, something a little different) Inner/mysticaldimension of Islam Integrated into one of the other branches • Five Pillars ○ Shahadah Testifying to belief in Allah and that Muhammad is his prophet ○ Salad Performingregular daily prayers ○ Sawm Fasting during the month of Ramadan ○ Zakah Giving alms to the poor ○ Hajj Making pilgrimage to Mecca • Sacred Texts ○ Qur'an 650CE Believed to be a revelationof Allah revealed to Muhammad over period of 23 years Written in Arabic No narrative format Oral tradition until Uzmanic codex Broken down into Suras, organized longest to shortest Includes stories about figures in the Hebrew Bible, as well as prophet Muhammad Controversyabout if it was written before or after death of prophet ○ Hadith 650-900CE Collection of Muhammad's life, words, and actions □ Not direct recitation from Allah □ Not direct recitation from Allah Considered necessary for correct interpretation of Qur'an Closest thing to gospels *sunna- comesfrom Hadith, means "the way of the prophet" • Shari'a ○ Islamic case law Four witnesses and Aisha □ Must produce four witnesses of wife cheating on husband □ Last wife, Aisha, accused of cheating on Muhammad. He said he had to have four witnesses to prove it. Etic basis for that requirement. ○ Fiqh Interpretation of issues that are not addressed by Shari'a □ Varies with different schools of thought Organ transplant, example of different views. ○ Fatwah- scholarly opinion on any religious matter Argument over whether one can eat marshmallows:pork byproduct □ Gelatin comesfrom pork. Debate over whether it is still forbidden or not because there is a chemical change involved. • Women in Islam ○ Khadijah Muhammad's first wife Fifteen years his senior Proposedto him Was a widowed merchant in Mecca Most beloved wife ○ Aisha Muhammad's last wife Married the prophet at a young age □ Age of 6 years old. Consummatedthe marriage when she was 9. New research says she could have been anywhere from 9-19. Daughter of Abu Bakr Said to have contributed up to a third of Hadith and Sunnah ○ Men are allowed to have up to 4 wives, but each wife must be treated COMPLETELYequally. If you buy one wife a gold necklace, you must by the SAME gold necklace for the other wives. • Sura 7: The wall between Heaven and Hell ○ Islamic MythologyBackground Jinns: Made from fire. □ Good and bad jinn Bad jinns are demons ◊ Iblis was a jinn. In Christian tradition, Iblis would be Satan. Angels: made of light Humans: made from clay Angels came first, then jinns, then humans. ○ God told the jinns and angels to bow to Adam. Iblis (Satan) refused. Iblis said he would cause problems for the humans God said he would not allow that, and that any who followed Satan would go to hell Adam and Eve live in the garden, same narrative about Satan leading them to know they were naked □ Does not specify that Eve convinced Adam, rather just that they both ate of the tree and failed □ Theme of modestyestablished
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'