Personality Week 1+2
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eileen artigas on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLPS 0701 at Brown University taught by Professor Hayden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Underpinnings of Personality personality noun 1. the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. Issues to Think About Individuality, Identity, Personality Pressing Questions! Can people change? if so why, when, what changes, how much. How you qualify and quantify what you mean by change- will define what kind of data to collect How to define human nature- good, neutral, or bad Different theoreticians- different assumptions of human nature (i.e. Carl Rogers- people are inherently good, self- motivated to improve, want to reach self-actualization) Components- traits, motives, cognitions and/or emotions Nature or nurture?- the strident dichotomy doesn't push argument forward, look in middle, use both What constitutes individuality? Conscious or unconscious- how much conscious control over our judgments/decisions/behaviors? Situation- ranging from family, friends, nation, culture What defines the Nature of Personality? Flexibility or stability- structures/stages/ traits Flux or permanence- change or set Predicting the future- predictability or quixotic Being different- distinctiveness Personality consistent over time and situations unique, individual differences, individuality enduring pattern of inner experience and overt behavior that results in and creates reactions across various settings Brief Ideas of Major Theories Trait theory- you have a predisposition to respond in a certain way (ex. predisposition for being extrovert) Humanist theory (Kelly and Rogers)- each of us experience environment in a different way -your unique perception will determine much of your behavior - no focus on universality Psychoanalytic- Our childhood experiences and unconscious desires influence behavior. Our personalities have memories, beliefs, urges, drives and instincts that we are not always aware of and that make up this unconscious Social Cognitive Theory – social learning, situational influence Learning Theorists- learning theorist- stimulus response B.F. Skinner- how does indiv. Perceive the particular stimulus Not everyone is learning the same thing from the same stimulus (i.e. Stanley Millgram’s study subjects high on empathy, cry of learner= relevant, learning from that stimulus, if high on need for control then investigator’s prodding= irrelevant, respond differently) Personality- enduring pattern that allows for a certain organization Framing a research question - a particular theoretical lens - context of discovery or context of justification Content - Novel, format, familiar, unfamiliar Instructions - Detailed or general (tell me about yourself) - Choice: little (Millgram “you must go on”) or a lot - Duration: brief or extensive (personal narrative, months to write) - Response: narrow (pigeon responses), broad With a different lens anxiety looks quite different Multiple answers to the same question Psychodynamic - Different types of anxiety - Unaware- unconscious impulses - Indirect response Learning Theorist - Create a response that is stronger than the response you’ve learned - Learned response, aware, learn new response Phenomenological - Inner experience is the focus - Aware - Response gives little meaning Anxiety experiments to illustrate how one question (What causes anxiety?) can be approached/tested/ answered in many ways depending on the theory Maner et. Al ’05 updated Freud’s theory of projection Functional projection- “neutral” stimuli Create something disturbing for the subject Allow them to project some degree of anger, fear, etc, onto the faces Researchers saw a change in the degree of neutrality as a direct by-product of what they see Dweck et al ‘02 Believed theory of interaction with the world formed early on Entity theorist- there’s an entity out there who is going to judge me Incremental theorist- feedback form environment and learn Children and pen pals Two instructions - “We’d like to see how good you are at making friends”- there is a standard - “This is a chance to improve making friends”- practice Who works harder? Entity theorists gave up! Shorter passages Incremental theorists- wrote longer, more engaging letters Seligman ‘06 Ongoing project, Fill out form, do what you like, anxiety decreased over the course of experiment for most participants Houben et al ‘11 If you see a particular word, pull lever, if you don’t, don’t pull the lever There is a tendency to want to responds Tested those who regularly consumed alcohol Automatic inhibition Alcoholics- were told not to respond to beer, no go signal Over time consumption of alcohol decreased Learning paradigm Foa et al ‘06 Write personal narrative over 6 months Anxiety- personal narrative of individual triggered a subsequent change in awareness of level of anxiety As internal cohesion and consistency of text improved, so did anxiety More anxiety, typically more fragmented thoughts Makes sense if you think of anxiety being a by-product of things not making sense Personality as a construction Who is the theorist? Each theorist brings to bear certain things that are important to them Freud- impacted by WW1, sexuality was also a hot topic in his day Individuality made from -idiosyncrasies - courageous adaptation -transformation -feeling -plots/subplots in empathy, control, etc -memory
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