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HDFS 329 Week 2 Lecture Notes

by: Heather Cronin

HDFS 329 Week 2 Lecture Notes HDFS329010

Heather Cronin
GPA 4.0

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Comprehensive outlined notes of all material presented during lecture for week 2 of HDFS 329: Adolescent Development.
Adolescent Development
Mellissa Gordon
Class Notes
HDFS, HumanDevelopment, humandevelopmentandfamilystudies, hdfs329, adolescentdevelopment, Human, week2, outline, LectureNotes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS329010 at University of Delaware taught by Mellissa Gordon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Family Studies and Human Development at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
HDFS 329: Adolescent Development Week 2 Lecture Notes Adolescent Development cont.  Transitioning to Adulthood o Individualism v. Collectivism/Interdependence  Individualism: learning to stand alone and be self-sufficient  Value self-expression  Collectivism: working with others and relying on one another  Value duty and obligation to others  Family first  Marriage is a huge milestone  American Society  Mostly individualist  Value responsibility, independent decisions, and financial freedom  Other Societies  Israel o Adulthood is achieved after completing military service  Argentina o Adulthood is defined as being able to financially support a family  India and China o Adulthood is marked by supporting parents financially  Scientific Method o Question: identify a topic of research o Hypotheses: investigate an answer to a question which arises from theory or previous research o Research Design: how and when to gather data o Sampling: choosing participants to represent your population of interest o Procedure: how the study is conducted/how data is collected o Methods: strategies for data collection  Research Issues o Reliability: consistency/stability of test scores  Obtaining the same results over and over o Validity: accuracy of inferences/interpretations made from scores  Tests are a proper measure of your research question  Research Methods o Methods  Ethnography: participant observation  Ex. Mead in Samoa, Harvard Adolescence Project  Biological Measurement: measuring biological factors  Ex. Tanner (timing/sequence of pubertal change)  Experimental Research: use of treatment and control groups  Ex. Anti-smoking interventions, media use  Naturalistic Observation: occurs in natural setting  Ex. Twin studies o Types of Data  Quantitative: close-ended questions  Used for large-scale surveys  Benefit: large-scale, comprehensive  Drawback: restrictive in responses  Qualitative: interviews, open-ended  To describe a personal experience  Benefit: rich and complex  Drawback: time-consuming to code and categorize data o Correlation v. Causation  Correlation: two phenomena coincidentally trend in the same direction; they are related  Causation: one phenomena causes another to occur, therefore creating a similar trend  Correlation does not equal causation  Adolescents Around the World o Sub-Saharan Africa  21 century plagued by poverty, war, and HIVAIDS  “Rich continent where people are poor”  Living standards have declined while the number of people in poverty has increased in the last 50 years  Impact of AIDS epidemic on young people  Parents’ death = deeper poverty  Susceptibility to being infected with AIDS  Must become leaders of their families o North Africa & the Middle East  The Muslim religion has a strong influence on all aspects of cultural life st  Key issues of young people in the 21 century  Strength of Islam: varies  Patriarchal Authority: father’s authority is obeyed without question  Position of Women: tight control over women’s appearance and behavior o Asia  Issues of young people  Tradition of Filial Piety: children must respect, obey, and revere parents (especially father)  Arranged Marriages and Dating: parents choose mate in most cultures  Intense Pressure at Secondary School Level: Confucian tradition places strong emphasis on education  Rights of Women: females have fewer rights and opportunities o India  Issues of young people  School v. Work: school is not compulsory, so many young people are illiterate (especially rural girls)  Tradition of Early Arranged Marriages: in the past, marriage before puberty; now, more than half of young people marry in their teens  Caste System: born into a caste based on moral/spiritual conduct in a former life; determines their place in society  Rights of Women: women are held at an inferior status o Latin America  Issues of young people  Political Stability: military coups, dictatorships, communist revolutions, civil wars (communist v. anti- communist)  Economic Growth: not prospering economically despite natural resources; adult unemployment is high, especially among young adults (>25%) o The West  Issues of young people  Education: opportunities are not evenly distributed; more college graduates than what is required  Unemployment: especially high among minorities  Leisure: media-based, include social networking  Young Minorities: experience discrimination, especially in the workplace o Gender Issues  Children aware of own gender by age 2  Cultural expectations for different genders become prominent during puberty  Men outnumber women in all job areas of science and engineering  On average, women make 80% of what men make  Second shift: women do twice the work of men when caring for the house and kids is accounted for o Globalization: increasing global technological and economic integration, which creates greater connections and the blending/mixing of cultures  An increase in integration will make the world more homogeneous  Bicultural: becoming aware of local identity as well as global culture identity Biological Foundations  Puberty o Latin “pubescere”: to grow hairy o Changes in anatomy, physiology, and physical appearance o Cultures/races influence respond differently to puberty, and have an influence on its timing o The Endocrine System  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)  Increase in its production is occurring earlier, so threshold is met earlier (start of puberty)  Increase occurs 2 years before the start of puberty in America  Sex Hormones  Males: testosterone  Females: estradiol  Gonads: sex glands o Males: testes o Females: ovaries  Increase in these hormones result in the most observable traits of puberty o Ex. Facial hair for males, breasts for females  Hypothalamus monitors levels of androgens and estrogens in bloodstream  “Set point”: sex hormones reach optimum level, causing the hypothalamus to reduce GnRH production so puberty can begin  Physical Growth  Height o Asynchronicity: “gangly look” associated with puberty; extremities grow before the rest of the body o From ages 11 to 13, girls are taller than boys o By age 15, boys surpass girls o Growth spurt signifies the “beginning of the end” of growth  Other Physical Differences o Boys’ and girls’ hearts grow in size, though boys’ grow more, causing a reduction in heart rate  By age 17, the average girl’s heart rate is five BPM faster than boys  Gives boys an advantage in sports, because they have more endurance o Vital capacity: air exhaled after a deep breath  Increases for boys and girls, but more so for boys  Boys again have an advantage, with a greater rate of oxygen flowing through the blood  Adolescent girls often discouraged from sports  Obesity Rates o 14% of American adolescents are obese o 1/3 of American adolescents eat fast food at least once per day o Rates vary by race/ethnicity o Childhood obesity is highest in the Southeast o In 2007, overweight/obese rates were higher for publicly insured children ages 10-17 than privately insured children o Health issues highest in ethnic minorities  Highest rate: non-Hispanic black girls and Mexican-American boys  Lowest rate: white girls and boys o If overweight as a child, 70% chance of being overweight as an adult o Challenges  Poor eating habits  Food marketing  Increased screen time  Television correlated with weight gain  Decreased physical activity  Limited access to healthy, affordable foods  High availability of soda and junk food  Environment  Food insecurity  Emerging Adulthood o Facts  Reaction time is highest during this time  Men’s grip strength peaks at this time  Cardiac output peaks at age 25  Lowest susceptibility to illness o Lifestyles  Factors that undermine health  Poor nutrition  Lack of sleep  Stress  Auto accidents are leading cause of death in the US  Homicide is another common cause of death  Rates of contracting STDs are highest in the early 20s, as well as rates of substance use and abuse  Sex Characteristics o Boys  Primary Characteristics  Produce sperm  Develop sex organs  Secondary Characteristics  Hair growth (pubic areas, underarms, face, chest, shoulders, back)  Rougher skin  Increased production of sweat glands  Facts  Have no sperm until puberty  Sperm production begins around age 12  There 30-500 million sperm on average in a male ejaculation, meaning they produce millions of sperm every day o Necessary because the female body is inhospitable to sperm, and they must travel a far distance to fertilize the egg o Girls  Primary Characteristics  Produce eggs  Develop sex organs  Secondary Characteristics  Hair growth (pubic areas, underarms, slight facial hair)  Rougher skin  Increased production of sweat glands  Enlargement of breasts- breast buds  Facts  Women are born with 400,000 immature eggs in each ovary, which drops to 80,000 by puberty  After menarche (first period), one egg develops into maturity every 28 days o Mother’s age of menarche is a predictor for her daughter’s age of menarche  Females release approximately 400 eggs over their reproductive life


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