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Module 3

by: Brittany Woody

Module 3 EAB3002

Brittany Woody

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Notes from the lectures for module 3, Pavlovian behavior.
Principles of Behavior Analysis
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAB3002 at University of Florida taught by Stagner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Module 3 Pavlovian Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov was a physiologist studying digestion in dogs; measured salivary reflex in dogs; won Nobel Prize for surgical procedure on salivary glands - Salivation depends on a substance; “psychic secretions” happened before food was given; glands had intelligence - Confirmed that dogs drooled when their tongue touched food; called the salivation reflex; dogs began to salivate before they had food; he introduced another stimulus before food was given, a ticking metronome; eventually, the dogs began salivating before food when it heard the ticking; called this response the conditioned response; replicated the experiment with different stimuli (a bell, light, etc) and got the same results - Unconditional reflex: hereditary; occur in all members; relatively permanent; pulling hand away from hot stove • unconditioned stimulus yield unconditioned reflex; food yields salivation (not learned) - Conditional reflex: acquired/ lost through experience; vary across members of species based on experience; temporary • conditioned stimulus yield conditioned response; sound yields salivation; requires experience - Pairing neutral stimulus (sound) with unconditioned stimulus (food), the neutral comes to elicit an unconditioned response (salivation) (CS-US yields UR) - Eventually neutral stimulus (sound) yields response (now called a conditioned response) (salivation) - Pairing of a stimuli is independent of behavior; regardless of what the organism is doing, stimuli are paired - The behavior is a reflex; inherited reflex responses are elicited by new stimuli - Measuring Pavlovian conditioning: • measure when response begins (latency) 1 • test trials: present only conditioned response; conditioning occurs if you get the same response • intensity: amplitude, magnitude; larger response means more learning • response time (latency) between CS and CR; shorter time, stronger conditioning - Higher-order (second-order) conditioning: Frolov discovered that after pairing a NS with a CS, the NS (now a CS) came to elicit a CR - Pavlovian conditioning procedures: • Trace: unconditioned stimulus (food) is given long after conditioned stimulus (bell) • Delayed: US is given shortly after CS • Simultaneous: US and CS are given at the same time • Backward: US is given long before CS - Contiguity: nearness in time or space; inter stimulus interval (ISI) is amount of time between CS and US; shorter ISI yields faster conditioning; no ISI in simultaneous procedure, yield no conditioning - Contingency: one appears with the other; high contingency: CS and US always appearing together; more unpaired US presentations: less learning - Variables affecting conditioning: • stimulus intensity: intense stimuli condition more rapidly as long as it doesn’t hurt subject or disrupt learning • number of pairing: more is better; number of trials yields a stronger strength of CR but eventually plateaus • age: younger people will have a stronger eye-blink condition, for example • temperament: excitable vs. sedate subjects; more excitable people experience more conditioning • stress/anxiety: anxious subjects have more conditioned responses - Overshadowing: one CS component is more effectively conditioned than the other; paired stimuli, one yields more response than the other - Blocking: previous pairings of a CS-US pairing blocks new pairing from being learned 2 - Latent inhibition: previous experience with a neutral stimulus; if a subject has been exposed to a neutral stimulus before pairing, conditioning decreases; novel (new) stimuli are most easily conditioned - Sensory preconditioning: a neutral stimulus, previously paired with another neutral stimulus, mat elicit a CR if the second NS is later paired with a US - Extinction: once established, a conditioned reflex can endure indefinitely if CS-US are paired on occasion; presenting CS alone will reduce CR; different from forgetting because extinction is lost of association - Spontaneous Recovery: following extinction and a delay, if CS is presented alone, it will produce CR; must extinguish CS more than once to qualify as spontaneous recovery 3


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