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by: Jacqueline Sanson

practice MAC 2241

Jacqueline Sanson

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Life Science Calculus 1
George Kimber
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Sanson on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MAC 2241 at University of South Florida taught by George Kimber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
 Student Last Name 1 Student Instructor Composition I September 13, 2015 Shallow Water Blackout: Hypoxic Training’s Secret Killer If you could turn off your body’s natural urge to breathe while holding your breath underwater, would you do it? Hypoxic training in shorter terms is breath control training, which requires swimmers to limit the amount of oxygen intake during a particular set. It heightens the feeling of discomfort and requires swimmers to use the little oxygen they obtain more efficiently. Hypoxic training closely ties with hypercapnia, or the body’s natural urge to breathe, by increasing the ability to resist this reflex (McCarthy). The topic of hypoxic training has been prominent in the swimming world for a long time but especially so after the death of the North Baltimore Aquatic Club (NBAC) swimmer Louis Lowenthal in 2012 after he had stayed after practice to improve his underwater work. Due to his extreme proficiency at swimming, lifeguards at the pool that day felt that they did not need to watch him as closely as the others in the pool at the moment. Lowenthal was found by a fellow swimmer lying motionless at the bottom of the pool, and was later pronounced dead by shallow water blackout (Smartsign). A shallow water blackout is fainting underwater as a result of lack of oxygen to the brain and a  Student Last Name 2 build up of carbon dioxide. Once unconscious, the body’s hypercapnia reflex kicks in and the lungs start to fill with water resulting in the ultimate price; life (McCarthy). Now realizing the normalcy of shallow water blackouts as a result of regimes such as hypoxic training, how will the competitive swim world handle this form of training?  Chandler, Douglas. "Shallow­water blackout: it's no joke." Sea&Shore 2009: 6. General OneFile. Web. 19 Sept. 2015. The article “Shallow­water blackout: it’s no joke” is again similar to the other articles previously listed. However, it portrays the information through a simulated event which makes it easier to understand the danger of shallow water blackouts. One piece of information that the article gives is that an individuals breathing reflex is triggered by the level of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. In addition, Chandler also mentions how swimmers in an unconscious state fool observers because they don’t seem like they are in dangers. The article is relevant to the topic because it briefly touches over shallow water blackouts and its correlation to hyperventilation which relates to hypoxic training. This articles mainly focuses on giving advice for preventing shallow water blackouts. A few of the ways listed are, “Don’t hyperventilate, recognize that any strenuous exercise you do while under drastically will limit the time you can stay underwater, and head to the surface much sooner. The credibility of this source is sound, as it was found through the use of the University of South Florida library  Student Last Name 3 database. Griffiths, Walter, and Tom Griffiths. "Dying for air: prolonged underwater breath holding is a silent, often overlooked, killer. Here's why the practice should be banned." Aquatics International 2005: 14. Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Sept. 2015. The article "Dying for air: prolonged underwater breath holding is a silent, often overlooked, killer. Here's why the practice should be banned" opens similarly to another article with an example of a death cause by shallow water blackout, defines shallow water blackout, and what causes it. However, although similar this article explains a few basic concepts that weren’t as efficiently explained in the previous articles. Such as the process of a shallow water blackout.  First the swimmer goes through reduced oxygen before moving to the near absence of oxygen, this lack of oxygen is what makes the athlete pass out. A cardiac arrhythmia caused by a drop in the blood’s pH from the higher level of carbon dioxide can also result in death from holding your breath. The article also briefly mentions that when the body has a lower level of oxygen endorphins are released which make the individual feel like they can go for a longer period of time without breathing. This article is relevant to my topic because it goes over the dangers, definition, and causes of shallow water blackouts via hypoxic training. It also mentions specific organizations, such as the YMCA and the American Red Cross, to emphasize that big influential health  Student Last Name 4 organizations are taking notice of the danger of underwater fainting as a result of prolonged breath holding. The article also briefly mentions that more briefings and rules are being implemented to stop these deaths from occurring. The credibility of this source is sound, as it was found through the use of the University of South Florida library database. McCarthy, Dan. "Hypoxic Training: Misunderstood Application." USA Swimming. USA Swimming, 01 May 2012. Web. 13 Sept. 2015. The article “Hypoxic Training: Misunderstood Application” mainly overviews what a shallow water blackout is and then goes into detail about hypoxic training. Due to popularity in the swimming world, hypoxic training usually involves little to no breathing sets to better increase a swimmer’s competition time. The article also touches on the difference between hypoxic training and altitude training, which is that altitude training athletes are breathing less pressurized air while hypoxic training athletes are just breathing less. This source is related to my research question because it disables myths about the similarity between altitude training and hypoxic training. It also touches briefly on the obvious  dangers of the regime, but in addition touches on the benefits of this particular form of training. This source is credible because it was taken from the USA Swimming website, which is the official United States of America Swimming Association. All clubs and swimming regulations go through this organization. In addition, it was written by Dan McCarthy who is a national team  Student Last Name 5 high performance consultant. Smartsign. "New Breath Holding Signs Help Stop Shallow Water Blackouts­by" Business Wire (English). N.p.: n.p., 05. N. pag. Regional Business News. Web. 13 Sept. 2015. The article “New Breath Holding Signs Help Stop Shallow Water Blackouts” is mainly information about shallow water blackouts and how there are no definite symptoms before you faint. It goes over the technicalities of having a shallow water blackout, such as the lack of oxygen, the higher concentration of carbon dioxide, and a swimmer’s hypercapnia reflex. It also briefly touches over the target audience: elite swimmers and free divers. Hypoxic workouts, or breathing control workouts are a big part of their training regimes, and because they condition an athlete to feel discomfort some become too confident. This is the time when swimmers are truly at risk of experiencing a shallow water blackout. The article also briefly touches over the signs that has released in an effort to prevent pool goers from having an underwater faint. This source connects back to my topic of what the swimming world is doing about hypoxic training with the recent publicity of shallow water blackouts because it defines what both subjects are and also gives a response as to what the swimming world is currently doing about it. The credibility of this source is sound, as it was found through the use of the University of South Florida library database.


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