Chapter 3 September 15, 2016
Chapter 3 September 15, 2016 CHM 151
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stefanie Bennett on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 151 at Maricopa Community Colleges - Glendale Community College taught by Dr. Tina Palmer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Chemistry in Chemistry at Maricopa Community Colleges - Glendale Community College.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
September 8, 2016 Thursday, Septembe4:57 PM16 • Kinetic Energy ○Thermal Energy – random motion of atoms. • Potential Energy ○Chemical Energy – stored within the structural unit of chemical substances. ○Electrostatic Energy – interaction between charged particles Law of Conservation of Energy – Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It is conserved. Chapter 3 Page 1 Wave (a) = 714 nm Wave (b) = 503 nm Chapter 3 Page 2 Example 2: What is the wavelength of a purple light that has a 14 frequency of 6.88 x 10 Hz? Chapter 3 Page 3 September 13, 2016 Tuesday, September 13, 2014:35 PM Chapter 3 Page 4 Light is passed through a single slit and then through a double slit creating an interference pattern on a screen. Constructive interference results when waves are added in phase. Destructive interference results when waves are added out of phase. This experiment demonstrates the inseparability of the wave-like and particle-like nature of light. Particle-like Properties of EM Radiation: The Planck Equation E = h -34 Planck’s constant, h = 6.626 x 10 J·s •Einstein observed metals reacting to different colors of light at a minimum frequency. •The energy of only one photon can be absorbed so only one electron can be ejected. •Electron is ejected from purple and green light but not from red light. Einstein’s photoelectric effect further supported the idea of quantized energy. Beam of light has wave-like properties but also behaves as if it were composed of small particles, photons, whose energy is related to their frequency, . Energy of photon depends on frequency not intensity! 1. What is the energy (in kJ) of a photon with a frequency, , of 4.35 x 10 s ?1 2. What is the energy (in kJ/mol) of a photon with a wavelength, , o 3.68 x 10 m? th Newton –17 Century – Sunlight is composed of various color components that can be recombined to produce white light. Emission Spectra : a gas phase sample is energized and passed through a prism. September 15, 2016 Thursday, September 3:59 PM6 • Each orbit is a different energy level. • Electrons in different orbits have different energies. • Electrons cannot exist between energy levels. • n=1 is the lowest energy level. • When an atom absorbs energy, an electron can jump from a lower energy level to a higher energy level. • Once the electron is excited, it will drop back down to a lower energy level. • This release energy in the form E = h . Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of the photon emitted when an electron transitions from the n = 5 state to the n = 2 state in a hydrogen atom. Chapter 3 Page 9 Wavelike Properties of Matter: The de Broglie Equation •de Broglie hypothesized: If light can have wave-like and particle-like behavior, then matter (already large enough to be a particle) should also behave like a wave. = h mv Example: What is the wavelength (in meters) of an electron (mass = 9.11 x 10kg ) that has been accelerated to 50% of the speed of light? Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - Impossible to know precisely where an electron is and what path it follows. Chapter 3 Page 10 Chapter 3 Page 11
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