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Week one lecture notes

by: Alondra Notetaker

Week one lecture notes 101

Marketplace > Loyola University Chicago > Science > 101 > Week one lecture notes
Alondra Notetaker
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About this Document

This set covers the basics of cells and evolution.
General Biology
Class Notes
Biology, cells, evolution




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alondra Notetaker on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Loyola University Chicago taught by Castignetti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at Loyola University Chicago.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Lecture 1  8/30/16  Evolution: ● Evolution is a fundamental property of living systems ● Concept that organisms living today are modified descendants of common ancestors ● Evolution:​ ​process of change that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to diversity of organisms living today ● EmergentProperty:​​due to arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases (new evolutions from one species to a newer generation) ● Organisms adapting to the environment around them to have better chances of life is part of evolution ● Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection: “descent with modification” also known as natural selection which says that individuals are more likely to survive if they’re able to compete ​ Example:Finches in the Galapagos Islands, there was a drought so the Finches with the smaller beaks had found themselves at a disadvantage because they could not break the seeds therefore there only food source was diminished. Finches with bigger beaks were able to crack open the seeds and gained their food source. ● The environment selects which traits will be favored as shown above Howdowetalkaboutlife? ● Use attributes; is it alive or is it dead ● Reproduce, grow and process energy (metabolism) ● Reductionism:​taking things apart into smaller/simpler components *Must also keep in mind the bigger scale, how it all interconnects and works together TheCell: ● Smallest unit of organization can perform activities required ● 2 main forms of cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic ● Prokaryotic:​ 2 groups of ​single celled ​microorganisms (Bacteria & Archaea) ● Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and enclosed membrane (generally smaller than a Eukaryotic cell) ● ALL other forms of life (plants,animals) = Eukaryotic Cells ● Eukaryotic cells​ contain​ ​membrane-enclosed​ ​organelles, also contain DNA and nucleus Theme: ● Chromosomes contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) ● When a cell divides, DNA is replicated, both offspring receive a complete set of chromosomes ● Genes:​DNA molecules with thousands of genes, each has a section of DNA chromosome DNA: ● Encodes all info necessary to build all molecules within a cell; establishes cells identity and function ● Cells constantly divide to give way to the trillions of cells within our body ● DNA is arranged in 2 long strands that are coiled into a double helix: made up of four building blocks known as nucleotides (A, T, C and G) ● Nucelotides:​ basic structure of nucleic acids known as DNA and RNA ● DNA encodes info the same way as we use the alphabet ​ Example: A rat is a rodent and tar is a black surface. Both contain the same three letters (r,a,t) but mean completely different things. ● Protein is major in​ building/ maintaining ​the cell and carrying out activities ● Genes use RNA to control protein production indirectly ● Ribonucleicacid:​​a messenger within the cell that carries instructions out from DNA that controls the synthesis of proteins ● There is a silencing RNA which can turn off certain genes ● Sequence of nucleotides are transcribed into RNA (a messenger for DNA) then it is translated into amino acids ● Aminoacids:​​building blocks of proteins, very important in almost all biological processes ● GeneExpression:​​info in a gene directs manufacture of a useful cellular product ● Differences in organisms reflects differences between nucleotides sequences not genetic codes Genomics: ● Study of a whole sets of genes ● Genome:​ entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherits ● Proteome is an entire set of proteins expressed by a cell/ group of cells Energy&Matter: ● Various cellular activities of life are work and work needs ​energy ● There is always a transfer of energy from one life to another ● Energy:​power that may be translated into motion ● When chemical energy is used for work that energy is lost to the surroundings as h ● Energy only flows ​one​ way ​through​ an ecosystem ● Chemical nutrients recycle within an ecosystem ● Producers​ = entities that create and pass along chemical energy in food to other organisms. Ex: plants ● Consumers​= organisms that feed on producers and other consumers Ex: bunny Interactions: ● Each organism interacts with other organisms. Ex: a tree, dirt, insects within dirt, roots, food provided by leaves etc. ● Organs, tissues, cells and molecules are essential to smooth operation within the human body ​ Example:after meal glucose in blood rises than pancreas releases insulin into the blood than the insulin reaches the liver/ muscle cells and finally it is stored as glycogen. Lecture 1  8/30/16  ● Decomposition/ storage of sugar are accelerated at a molecular level (catalyzed) by proteins called enzymes ● Catalyst:​​substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction but it does not change itself ● A ​pathway ​is like directions for cells to go a certain place or do a certain task ● Feedback regulation is a system within organisms that works as a self regulator ● NegativeFeedback:​​slows down the initial stimulus Ex: Rising of body temp. During exercise ● PositiveFeedback:​ ​end product that speeds up its own production Ex: clotting of blood in response to injury


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