HIST 3045, Week 2 Notes
HIST 3045, Week 2 Notes HIST 3045
Popular in International History of the Cold War
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3045 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Paul Pitman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see International History of the Cold War in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
International Cold War History – Week 2 6 September 2016 Mass Politics in the Era of Total War: The Generation of World War 1 - People who were adults when the war broke out. 1914 - 1918 --> So born in 1896-1900 Fought the war or were close to those who did. • *Note: Stalin and Truman were both in these groups • What did these people experience? --> Fear • (book) Ira Katznelson: Fear Itself Developments that took place in World War 1 • Development of modern press, Human rights: all contribute to mass participation of humans in politics • Development of industrial production • Development of Transnational capitalism • Proto Globalization • Emergence of total war - • Is this a thing of WWI? • The Goal of the war was to change the political order within each country (new War) • Old war: Taking territories. World War 1: • It was an industrial War • The Outcome was a Stalemate which resulted in trenches. • The draft was used to send people to war and factories. • The French start to think about family planning, because where will their next soldiers come from? How World War 1 worked militarily? • New: Machine Guns, Artillery, Indirect Fire - How to target the other side without being able to see them. • Kilo-tonnage, later compared to nuclear power • Trench Warfare • Government took over corporations • Verdun an example • the goal wasn't to win, it was to kill as many people as possible so that there was a social crisis in France. • Small squadron tactics develop, and the Germans break through the trench lines, and were on the verge of defeating the French, the British soldiers win, the American's enter, and the Germans run out of food. • Everyone in the whole country was involved. • Morale was key. • Consider: What would it take for the government to get you to go to war? What Happened on the Homefront? • In the countries that fought WW1, the political developments followed roughly the same patterns within Europe • Existing regimes in 1916: most countries were monarchies, 2 or 3 republics, the biggest was France, but they were all dominated by elites. • Whether these were monarchies or not they had relatively limited intervention in the economies • Most were on the gold standard (limited borrowing) • Liberal economic policies • Faced serious economic crisis in the run up to WW1. • Theories that some of the countries wanted a small war to prop up elections • In the Short run- Governments tried to fight a short and contained war. • "War is the only Hygiene for a decadent society" • Everyone voted for the war, including the socialists. • Burgfrieden - Peace within the city, rallying around the flag, voting for the War effort. • The war shook up politics • Spurred hard core right and revolutionary left • A lot of veterans who get in a lot of street fights and may turn into brown shirts, of fascists. Politics • The Aristocracy and monarchy are discredited • The liberal elites are discredited • Parliamentary democracy has limited appeal outside of England, France and the Untied States, and even in those countries there are critics that think it is too slow and awkward to face the challenges of mass war. • The Russian government was collapsed. Economics • The act of fighting the war meant that governments took a much bigger role than they had formerly taken and resources that they run • Led to the income tax • Leads to inflation to finance deficit • Paper money and away from gold standard • Government influence of where people went, what they ate, and where they worked • The increase of women in the workforce. • Farm and industrial production (other than weapons) goes down • Lots of imports. • Most of the Food came from the United States • The Spread of manufacturing around the world • Governments are discredited and people want a better economic deal. • People no longer want to live without welfare. • 'A land fit for heroes' • War led to economic depression, and post 1929, communist/fascists governments appeared to be handling their economies better than other countries. • Willingness by centrists to intervene in economy, Keynesian demand management, welfare etc. The Generation of World War 2 1939 - 1945 --> DOB: 1920 - 1928 • Speech by Walter Lippmann - 23 March 1933 • The day Germany opened its first concentration camp • 2 revolutionary developments § Masses of Men § Vastly large scope of Government • The Nation is a Daily Plebiscite § A Nation requires active engagement by the members of its community • A Europe of Torture and Prisons… • The Cold War came from something of profound fear. • Why were they scared? • Seen widespread warfare that targeted civilians • The political order they were used to was destroyed • 1923 - 29 economic development collapsed after this period • We often think that this generation feared nuclear war, but they also feared general attacks on civilians. • i.e. fire bombs, air raids, etc. *Assertion: World War 2 recast the international system. Outcomes of World War 2, moving into the cold war • Move from a multi-polar balance of power to a world in which most would say there were 2 super powers. • Countries like Germany, japan, UK, may eventually regain footing, but it would be a generation before they become influential again • The International economy broke down. • Currencies become freely exchangeable • By the end of 1945, the world is divided up into zones: a dollar zone, a sterling zone, a Franc zone, etc. • Include a center and dependent territories • The British kept the US outside of the sterling zone controlled this with capital control, closed imperial trading block. • During world war 2 this was actually a part of economic warfare (keeping the Japanese and Germans from getting the raw materials that would help their war efforts) • Countries tried to impose their own social system on countries they were at war with. • In general in 1914 there was an understanding that when you fought a country, you didn't touch the internal factors - (Westphalian international system) • Control of each country over internal affairs • You might take territory, but not change how it is run unless you controlled it. • Didn't try to over throw social systems • After World War 2 begins, this is no longer the case • Countries tried to progress their versions of governing. • The whole period of WWI through the end of the Cold war, you could look at it as a transnational civil war of the entire international system. • The 'modern' system of war from 18th c. Europe (limited to these countries) - is war that made a clear distinction between civilians and soldiers and follow 'rules' and 'laws of war' • In a civil or colonial war this doesn't apply • Who are the illegal combatants of the 2nd world war? • The occupying powers called them terrorists • Party armies § Owe allegiance to some party rather than a state § Organized governments didn't recognize them as soldiers. • The Air war was fought mostly by the allies because they had the means to do it. 8 September 2016 What is the International System? 1. At any point in time: Balance of Power o Potential for countries to make war o Interactions between countries o Includes economic, military and soft power (cultural influence) 2. Institutions and Norms o Rules that can be enforced o Customs and standard ways of doing things 3. The International Economic System o Trade and markets • All of these categories overlap (i.e., norms govern economic interactions…) • The States are the main players. Influencing individuals for this class: • Thomas Paine: Author of "Common Sense," thinks of the United States as a model. • Milovan Djilas: Yugoslav Communist • Alexis de Tocqueville • Hobbes • Alexander Hamilton: argued for a stronger government for the United States based on realist concerns How the United States and the Soviet Union Got to the Cold War • Harper Chapter from week 1 o The American Expansion across the Continental United States was anything but peaceful o It really matters how leaders think and how they view the world • Tries to make sense of how Stalin thought about the world o People have contradictory thoughts o In order to understand the range of possibilities, you do need to understand when revolution is possible, which partners you can have, and what would be the chances that post-Nazi Germany could see the growth of a communist party, or France? What should your policy be towards revolution o These countries may be torn between Security interests and Ideology interests o They can also operate under the rules of international law within institutions • Do you or do you not play by the rules of the United Nations Introduction • In April 1945 - Stalin meets with the Yugoslav communist Milovan Djilas o "Whoever occupies a territory imposes his own social system… as far as his army can reach" -- Stalin o "if now, there is not a communist government in Paris, this is only because there is not a Russian army that can reach Paris in 1945" --Stalin • WW2 can be seen as competition between liberal democracies and fascists regimes. • The Cold war is a continuation of this • Both the United States and the Soviet Union, didn't respect the international norms of the international system going back to Westphalia, they were pursuing the goal of spreading their social/political system. • Reading: The Empire of Justice page 39 o How similar the US and Soviets are • Revolutionary powers since the beginning o The United States was founded as a revolutionary model for the whole world o Continuous attempts by other states to socialize Russia and the United States into the international system… (to respect the norms of the international system) • How did they get there and were they destined to clash? Fatalism (Hobbesian) • AKA - Geopolitics o Deals with the Balance of Power • Geopolitical Experiences of the Russian State o No natural orders & Constantly being defeated, therefore they constantly assume the worst about the outside world. They Expect invasion. • The best way to keep this from happening: expand borders as far out from Moscow as possible. o The Russians tend to depend on a strong state. • You need real authoritative people in government that can mobilize and army (classic realism) • Use external threats to justify internal oppression o Danger of overextension • Geopolitical Experience of the United States of America o A lot of people would say the US is naturally free because it is isolated geographically • This isn't necessarily entirely true o Constantly afraid that other European Countries would play a big part in the Americas o The debate of where to conquer • Those who favored slavery wanted to annex more territory, and especially territory that would be good slave territory • Those opposed did not want to annex territories with people of color because they felt it was likely that people would impose slavery on these areas o There were people who argued the United States needed a stronger government (Alexander Hamilton) • The need for a strong Navy • Realist concerns • Stems into why our military is as expansive as it is to day o There's a political aspect: in a cold war setting, nobody running for president can be soft on the potential enemies of the United States (The Iron law of American Politics) o Additional Aspect: the concept of "a city on a hill." the Puritans view this as being an example for the rest of the World, becomes a powerful tradition in American Foreign Relations. • Thomas Paine: Common Sense "The American Cause is the Cause of all mankind" • Conclusion: both countries had geopolitical concerns that shaped their statecraft. Ideology • Messianism o About the makeup of the different countries (will they all be republics or socialists, or monarchies?); AKA: Social Systems & Domestic politics • Woodrow Wilson: At the end of World War 1 President W. Wilson intervenes in the war by joining the Allies and presenting a platform: in order to have peace, we need to have national self determination (every state has to be a national State so that you don't have states with minorities), Every country should be a liberal democracy, and pushes for market economy & League of Nations. o Issue: States that don't have majority ethnic group (Practical and moral question) • Bolsheviks: Marxist Theory of Revolution (important starting point) - The revolution will be lead by the proletariat, property-less workers who work in factories and live in cities, brought together by suppression/exploitation, develop class consciousness and then mobilize to over throw the government. o By using force, they can hold on to power (optimism) • Their success would depend on the advanced countries • Wait for revolutions in developed countries • Suing for peace (1918) o Lenin is not a Nationalist - he believes in an international socialist revolution and thinks nationalism would keep a revolution from happening Diplomacy • The Norms of the international System o Harper: Both countries operate as "normal" countries in the international system, most of the time. • The Soviets: o After 1920-21 , the Soviets pursued their interests to keep the Soviet system alive in Russia. o Tried to dived their enemies • An alliance with Germany • Telling the German communist party not to cooperate with the socialist party to block Hitler from coming to power. o Flip in 1939: The western allies are slow to agree on a realistic way to oppose the Nazis • Negotiations break down on whether the Soviet army would be able to pass through Poland.
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