Psychology 100-Chapter 3-Biological Psychology
Psychology 100-Chapter 3-Biological Psychology Psychology 100
Popular in Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Obioma Azie on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Megan Davis in Winter 2016 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Chapter Three Biological Psychology (Source: Psychology: From Understanding to Inquiry (13th Edition)) Highlighting and Underlining Explained If a term is underlined and highlighted, it is a key term that you should know come exam day. If a term is just underlined it is an important person or concept that would be good to remember. Phrases in bold are key ideas. Topics Covered: Neurons Parts of neurons Neurotransmitters Electrical events in neurons o Action potential o Depolarization o Neurotransmission Chemical communication between neurons Glial cells Nodes Neural plasticity o Neural plasticity and learning o Neural plasticity following injury and degeneration o Adult neurogenesis Stem cells Parts of the brain How we come to be who we are Behavioral genetics Neurons (Source:https://askabiologist.asu.edu/neuronanatomy) What is a neuron? o A neuron is a nerve cell specialized for communication. The functioning of our brains depends heavily on the communication that occurs between neurons. Our brain has about 85 billion neurons How are neurons different from other cells? o Neurons have long extensions that help them respond to stimulation from other neurons and communicate with them.. Parts of the neuron o The cell body(a.k.a. soma) Materials needed by the neuron are produced here. Contains nucleus Makes proteins o Dendrites Receives signals from other neurons Projection that picks up impulses from other neurons o Axon Sends signals to other neurons o Synapse The terminal point of the axon branch, which releases neurotransmitters Space between two connecting neurons through which messages are transmitted chemically Surrounds the neuron o Synaptic Vesicle Spherical sack containing neurotransmitters o Synaptic Cleft A gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal o Myelin Sheath The fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cell It is made from glial cells It speeds up the transmission of impulses Surrounds the neuron Neurotransmitters What is a neurotransmitter? o A substance in the body that carries a signal from one nerve cell to another Electrical Events in Neurons (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_potential) Action Potential: Voltage Change Overtime Threshold: Membrane potential that is necessary to trigger an action potential Absolute Refractory Period: The time when another action potential is impossible. o This limits the maximal firing rate. Resting Potential o Electrical charge difference(60 millivolts) across the neuronal membrane. o When the neuron is not being stimulated or inhibited Receptor Site o Location along the neuron that uniquely recognizes a neurotransmitter Positive and negative ions(particles) float around inside and outside of a neuron. Neurons are polarized at rest. o What does this mean? This means that there are more negative ions on the inside of an ion than there are on the outside of an ion. This state is referred to as resting potential 70 millivolts Positive ions want to get into the neuron. o They are stopped by the cell membrane. Channels(a.k.a. gates) in the cell can open to let in positive ions. When a cell receives a signal from an adjacent neuron, channels open and positive ions flood in. This is depolarization Neurons become less negative . This causes nearby voltagegated channels to open. If enough positive ions enter the soma, the neuron will fire. This phenomenon is known as action potential(Electrical impulses travel down the axon to the next synapse. It’s an all or none response.) When the action potential reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. Refractory Period o Reuptake Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the synaptic vesicle. Is one of nature’s recycling mechanisms o Happens after action potential o It is a short period during which another action potential is not possible o Positive ions are pumped out of the neuron. Chemical Communication: Neurotransmission o When action potential reaches axon terminal, neurotransmitters . Neurotransmitters bind to iongated channels on the next neuron’s dendrites. This opens iongated channels and depolarizes the next neuron. Different receptor sites recognize different types of neurotransmitters. Types of Neurotransmitters Different neurotransmitters communicate different types of messages. Some neurotransmitters excite neurons and increase firing. By doing so, they excite the nervous system, and increase brain activity. o These are excitatory Some neurotransmitters are inhibitory, and decrease the brain’s activity, and in doing so, inhibit the nervous system Some neurotransmitters play a role in movement and pain perception, while others play important roles in thinking and emotion. Examples of Neurotransmitters and Their Effects Acetylcholine( ACh) o Function Excitatory Produces muscle contractions Is found in motor neurons In the hippocampus, it is involved in memory formation, learning, and general intellectual function o Effects of Deficit Paralysis A factor that is associated with Alzheimer’s disease Levels of acetylcholine are severely reduced This is associated with memory impairment o Effects of Surplus Violent muscle contractions Dopamine o Function Excitatory Voluntary muscle movement, attention, learning, memory,emotional arousal, and rewarding sensations o Effects of Deficit Muscle rigidity A factor associated with Parkinson’s disease The degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra The substantia nigra produces dopamine. o Effects of Surplus One factor associated with schizophrenialike symptoms, such as hallucinations, perceptual disorders, and addiction o 2Dopa is used to treat Parkinson’s disease 2Dopa increases the amount of dopamine that is produced. o Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine action Serotonin o Function Inhibitory or excitatory Involved in: Mood Sexual behavior Pain perception Sleep Eating behavior Maintaining normal temperature and hormonal state o Effects of Deficit Anxiety Mood disorders Insomnia Serotonin deficit is one of the factors that is associated with obsessive compulsive disorder and depression o Effects of Surplus Autism Endorphins o Function Inhibitory Regulates pain perception Is involved in sexuality, pregnancy, labor, and positive emotions associated with aerobic exercise( the brain’s natural opiates) o Effects of Deficit Body experiences pain o Effects of Surplus Body may not provide adequate warning for pain o Narcotic drugs help to reduce pain and produce euphoria Codeine Morphine Heroin Norepinephrine o Function Excitatory and inhibitory Involved in: increasing heartbeat Arousal Learning Memory Hunger o Effects of Deficit Is a factor that is associated with depression o Effect of Surplus Anxiety o Amphetamine and methamphetamine increase norepinephrine. GABA( Gamma aminobutyric acid) o This is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. o Functions Inhibitory Communicates messages to other neurons Helps to balance and offset excitatory messages It is involved in allergies o Effects of Deficit Destruction of GABA producing neurons Huntington’s disease Produces tremors, loss of motor control, and personality changes o Effects of Surplus Sleep and eating disorders o Alcohol and antianxiety drugs increase GABA activity. Glutamate o This is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system o Role Participates in sensory information and learning Acetylcholine(ACh) o Roles Muscle contraction(PNS) Cortical arousal(CNS) o Nicotine stimulates ACh receptors o Memory enhancers increase ACh Anandamide o Roles Pain reduction Increase in appetite o THC, an ingredient found in marijuana, produces euphoria Glial Cells What is a glial cell? o A cell in the nervous system that plays a big role in the formation of myelin and the bloodbrain barrier. It responds to injury Removes debris Act as the brain’s cellular garbage disposal Enhances learning and memory They are plentiful in the nervous system. Treatments that target glial cells may one day be able to assist in the treatment of a variety of conditions related to the number and activity of them. o Depression o Schizophrenia o Inflammation o Chronic pain o Alzheimer’s Disease The most abundant type of glial cells are astrocytes. o Astrocytes interact with about 300,0001,000,000 neurons Astrocytes o Communicate closely with neurons o Increase the reliability of their transmission o Control blood flow into the brain o Play a critical role in the development of embryos Astrocytes, when working with other glial cells, are involved in thought, memory, and the immune system. Astrocytes can be found in abundant supply in the bloodbrain barrier . o The bloodbrain barrier is a protective shield that insulates the brain from infection by bacteria and other intruders. Do not block fat from entering the brain Another type of glial cell is an oligodendrocyte. o They promote new connections among nerve cells and releases chemicals to aid in healing o They produce the myelin sheath Nodes Nodes o Gaps along the axon Help the neuron to conduct electricity more efficiently Neural signals jump from node to node, speeding up the transmission of neural messages Neural Plasticity Scientists use plasticity to describe the the nervous system’s ability to change. Very few human behaviors are hardwired. o The nervous system is continually changing. Unfortunately, the nervous system often does not change enough to after injury or stroke. o This can lead to permanent paralysis and disability. Our brain is more flexible during early development. o This is the time when our nervous system has yet to be set in stone. Our brains don’t fully mature until late adolescence/ early adulthood. Some brain structures mature more rapidly than others . o Some brain structures remain plastic throughout childhood, while others lose their extreme plasticity in infancy. The network of neurons in the brain changes over the course of development in 4 primary ways: o Growth of dendrites o Synaptogenesis(The formation of new synapses) o Pruning( The death of certain neurons and the retraction of axons to remove connections that are not useful) 70% of all neurons die off This process is helpful It streamlines neural organization This enhances the communication between brain structures Our brains can process more information more efficiently with fewer neurons o Myelination( The insulation of axons with a myelin sheath Neural Plasticity and Learning Our brains change as we learn. o These changes can result from: The formation of new synapses This generates increased connections and communication among neurons The strengthening of existing synaptic connections. The neurotransmitters released into synapses produce a stronger more prolonged response from neighboring neurons. Researchers call this phenomenon potentiation o Researchers believe that structural placidity ( change in the shape of neurons) plays a critical part in learning. o Exposure to enriched environments also results in structural enhancements to the dendrites. Neural Plasticity Following Injury and Degeneration The brain and spinal cord are limited in their ability to regenerate after an injury or serious illness. Some brain regions can take over the functions previously performed by other regions of the brain. Scientists are trying to find ways to enhance the brain and spinal cord’s abilities to repair themselves after experiencing an injury. o Why? Degenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease pose a serious threat to society, as people are now starting to live longer, and are more prone to these diseases because of this trend. Formulating ways to help the brain to heal itself could really help to combat Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Adult Neurogenesis Neurogenesis o The creation of new neurons in the adult brain By triggering neurogenesis, scientists may one day gain the ability to induce the the adult nervous system into healing itself. Neurogenesis plays a useful role in learning Stem Cells Stem cells have not committed themselves to a specific function yet. o When directly implanted into a host’s nervous system, they can grow to replace damaged cells. Researchers can can genetically engineer stem cells to provide gene therapy. o This could provide patients with replacement genes. Stem cell research has come under fire , and has been labeled as unethical for metaphysical reasons. o Stem cell research requires investigators to create and then extract labcreated balls of cells that are four or five days old. Opposers of stem cell research consider these balls to be early forms of life. The Central Nervous System: The Command Center Cerebral Vertices o Pockets in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that provide the brain with nutrients and cushion against injury The Central Nervous System(CNS) o The part of the nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord that contros the mind and behavior The Organization of the Central Nervous System (source:http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=4d1bf63a1b934ed99422 a11130d2615d) (Source:http://www.biologypages.info/C/CNS.html) Cortex(Cerebrum): o What is the cortex? The largest part of the brain that is associated with higher brain function, such as thought and action. It is divided into 4 sections. o Frontal Lobe Controls Language Memory Motor functions Planning and inhibition Damage to the frontal lobe can affect speech, memory, and personality. o Parietal Lobe Controls Sensory functions Perception Spatial awareness Damage to the parietal lobe can affect one’s ability to make sense of surroundings. Broca’s Area Important for speech production Broca’s Aphasia Problems with speech production Is located near the front of the brain o Temporal Lobe Controls Hearing and language Memory storage Face recognition Damage to temporal lobe affects one’s ability to understand speech and recognize faces. Wernicke’s Area Important for language comprehension Wernicke’s aphasia Problems with language comprehension Trouble putting language together in a logical and meaningful way. o Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe is important for vision. It processes visual information Basal Ganglia o Process rewards o Movement initiation o Damage to the basal ganglia can result in one having difficulty initiating and controlling movement. Parkinson’s disease The death of basal ganglia neurons Less dopamine means that that these neurons cannot communicate to control movement (Source:http://www.yalescientific.org/2014/12/unchartedwatersindyslexiaresearch/) (Source:http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/limbicsystem/) The Limbic System Limbic System( Responsible for our emotional lives , and our higher mental functions( learning and memory formation) o Thalamus Conveys sensory information to cortex Is the gateway from the sense organs to the primary sensory cortex o Hypothalamus Oversees endocrine and autonomic nervous system Is the part of the brain that is responsible for maintaining a constant internal state o Amygdala Regulates arousal and fear Part of the limbic system that plays a key role in: Fear Excitement Arousal o Hippocampus Processes memory for spatial locations Is the part of the brain that plays a role in spatial memory Cerebellum o Controls balance and coordinated movement Brainstem: Regulates control of involuntary functions, such as breathing and heart rate; located between the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex;contains the midbrain, pons, and medulla o Midbrain Tracks visual stimuli and reflexes triggered by sound Part of the brainstem that contributes to: Movement The tracking of visual stimuli Reflexes triggered by sound o Pons Convey information between the cortex and cerebellum o Medulla Regulates breathing and heartbeats Spinal Cord o Conveys information between the brain and the rest of the body Forebrain(including cerebral cortex) o The site of most of most of the brain’s conscious functions Corpus Callosum o Bundle of nerve fibers connecting the cerebrum’s two hemispheres The cerebrum’s two hemispheres Lateralization Cognitive function that relies more on one side of the brain than the other Left(cerebral hemisphere) Finetuned language skills Speech comprehension Speech production Phonology Syntax Reading Writing Actions Making facial expressions Motion detections Right(cerebral hemisphere) Course language skills Simple speech Simple writing Tone of voice Visuospatial Perceptual grouping Face perception/recognition Cerebral Cortex o Is the outermost part of the forebrain. o Is responsible for analyzing sensory processing and higher brain functions Forebrain( cerebrum) o The forward part of the brain that allow advanced intellectual abilities Cerebral Hemispheres o Two halves of the cerebral cortex Each half has distinct and very highly integrated functions Corpus Callosum o Large band of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres Prefrontal Cortex o Part of the frontal lobe responsible for: Thinking Planning Language o Is associated with various aspects of behavior and personality Motor Cortex o Part of the frontal lobe responsible for body movement o Generates signals responsible for voluntary movements Broca’s Area o Language are in the prefrontal cortex that helps to control speech and production o Is very important for the formation of speech Primary Auditory Cortex o Detects discrete qualities of sound, such as pitch and volume Auditory Association Cortex o Analyzes data about sound, so that we can recognize words or melodies Wernicke’s Area o Part of the temporal lobe that is involved in understanding speech o Interprets spoken and written language Primary Visual Cortex o Receives nerve impulses from the visual thalamus Visual Association Cortex o Analyzes visual data to form images Primary Sensory Cortex o Region of the cerebral cortex that initially processes information from the senses o Receives data about sensations in skin, muscles, and joints Association Cortex o Region of the cerebral cortex that integrates simpler functions into performing more complex functions. Reticular Activating System o Brain area that plays a key role in arousal Hindbrain o The region below the midbrain that contains the cerebellum, pons, and medulla Spinal Cord o Thick bundle of nerves that conveys signals between the brain and the body Interneuron o Neuron that sends messages to to other nearby neurons Reflex o An automatic motor response to a sensory stimulus The Peripheral Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) o Nerves in the body that extend outside of the central nervous system. Somatic Nervous System o Part of the nervous system that conveys information between the CNS and the body, and controls voluntary movement Autonomic Nervous System o Part of the nervous system controlling the involuntary actions of our internal organs and glands, which, along with the limbic system, participate in emotion regulation. o There are two divisions of this. Sympathetic Nervous System Fight or flight Parasympathetic Nervous System Controls rest and digestion Pituitary Gland o The master gland, that under the control of the hypothalamus, directs the other glands of the body The Adrenal Glands and Adrenaline Adrenal gland o Tissue located on top of the kidneys that releases adrenaline and cortisol during states of emotional arousal A Tour of BrainMapping Methods Electroencephalograph(EEG) o Recording of the brain’s electrical activity at the surface of the skull Computer Tomography(CT) o A scanning technique using multiple xrays to construct 3D images Magnetic Resonance Images(MRI) o Technique that uses magnetic fields to indirectly visualize brain structure Positron Emission Tomography( PET) o Imaging technique that measures consumption of of ghostlike molecules, producing a picture of neural activity in different regions of the brain Functional MRI( fMRI) o Technique that uses magnetic fields to visualize brain activity using changes in blood oxygen level Transactional Magnetic Stimulation( TMS) o Technique that applies strong and quickly changing magnetic fields to the surface of the skull that can either enhance or interrupt brain function Magnetoencephalography(MEG) o Technique that measures brain activity by detecting tiny magnetic fields generated by the brain How We Come to Be Who We Are Chromosome o Slender thread inside a cell’s nucleus that carries genes Gene o Genetic material, composed of DNA Genotype o Our genetic makeup Phenotype o Our observable traits Dominant Gene o Gene that masks the other gene’s effects Recessive Gene o Gene that is expressed only in absence of a dominant gene Fitness o An organism’s capacity to pass on their genes Behavioral Genetics Heritability o Percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes The extent to which differences among people in a trait are due to genetic influences Reaction Range o The extent to which genes set limit on how much a trait can change in response to new environments Family Study o Analysis of how characteristics run in intact families Tustin Study o Analysis of how traits differ in identical twins vs fraternal twins Adaption Study o Analysis of how traits vary in individuals raised apart from their biological relatives
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