BIO 327 lectures 1+2
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Eisenberg on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 327 at Syracuse University taught by erdman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Lecture 1&2 Monday, September 12, 20165:55 PM • Model organisms- ○ E coli- model for DNA replication, protein production ○ Brewer's yeast- reproduce quickly, so a model for cell division cycle ○ Arabidopsis plant- development and physiology of crops, evolution ○ Drosophila fruit fly- genes, transmission genetics ○ C.Elegans worm- development, apoptosis ○ Zebrafish ○ Mouse • Problems with eukaryotic replication ○ Doing it in a timely fashion. Solution- multiple origins of replication, start at different times ○ Chromosomes must condense and move. Solution- cytoskeletal systems • Kingdoms of living organisms: archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes • Central dogma of molecular biology: DNA →RNA→protein ○ Same function in all living cells ○ All cells require energy to function • Prokaryotes lack a nucleus or other intracellular compartments • Eukaryotes have many compartments • Mitochondria and chloroplasts thought to have endosymbiont origins- have their own DNA and a double membrane • Endocytosis- import of materials • Exocytosis- export of materials • Acids- release protons when dissolved in water, forming H3O. Strong acids lose protons more easily. • Bases- accept a proton when dissolved in water, [OH-] • Sugars- ○ 2 monosaccharides can be linked by a glyosidic bond, forming a disaccharide. This is a condensation reaction that expels a molecule of water as the bond is formed. Can be broken by hydrolysis, consume an H2O molecule • Fatty acids: lipids ○ Long hydrocarbon chains, hydrophobic ○ Hydrophilic carboxyl group ○ Amphipathic- contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions ○ Concentrated food reserve in cells ○ Form the lipid bilayer as phospholipids • Amino acids and proteins ○ Have a carboxylic acid group and an amino acid group, linked to alpha carbons. ○ Peptide bonds form between amino acids through a condensation reaction • Nucleotides, DNA, RNA ○ Bases are nitrogen containing rings ○ Can act as short term carriers of energy- ATP. The 3 phosphates of ATP are linked by phosphoanhydride bonds ○ Storage of biological info ○ Nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds • Conditional mutations- proteins may be normal at one temp and unfold at another temp • Kinase- take terminal P of ATP, tack it on to something else in the cell and may change its function. PHOSPHORYLATE. • Covalent bonds are the strongest, then ionic • "Good" fat is saturated • Weak bonds enable specificities of interactions in the complex cell • Hydrophilic- ionic substances, polar substances • Hydrophobic- hydrocarbons. Aggregate and remain immiscible in water. • Phosphates (H3PO4) are polar and highly negatively charged, interact well with water Cell Biology Page 1