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The Physical Universe Week 3 Class and Book Notes

by: Alma Rose Jackson

The Physical Universe Week 3 Class and Book Notes ASTR 170B1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > ASTR 170B1 > The Physical Universe Week 3 Class and Book Notes
Alma Rose Jackson
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

The class notes and book notes from the third week of class.
The Physical Universe
Daniel Marrone
Class Notes
astronomy, 170B1
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alma Rose Jackson on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 170B1 at University of Arizona taught by Daniel Marrone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Astronomy:   170B1  T   he   Physical   Universe  Week  3     ep   7­Sep        ~In  C  lass   Notes  Chapter  4       ~Physics   &  M   otion:  ­Speed:   How   far  y  ou   go  n   how   much   time  ­Velocity:   Combination   of   speed  a   nd   direction  ­Acceleration:   rate   of   change   of   velocity   (speed   or   direction).    ~Momentum  &      orce:  ­Momentum:   mass   times   velocity,   involves   speed   and   direction  ­Force:   The   quantity   that   can   change   the   momentum  ­Net   Force:   The   total   amount   of   forces   on   an   object,   including   direction,   determines   its   acceleration  ­Mass:   Amount   of  m   atter   in   an  bject   ­Weight:   The   force   you   exert   on   the   object   supporting   you.          ­Ex.    A   sat  rbiting   the   Earth   a     constant   height      ccelerating    because   it   orbits n   a   circle,   a   rate  of   change   of   velocity).    ~Newton:   ­Invented   calculus  ­Formulated   mathematical  d   escription   of    ravity  ­He   got   his   insight   from   the   apple   that   fell   from   the   tree.   The   force   [gravity]   that   brings   down   the   apple  also   brings   down   the   moon.   (Shown  b   elow).    ~Newton’s   Laws  1st   Law­    n   object   will   remain   at   rest   or   motion      unless   acted   upon   b  n   xternal   orce.  2nd   Law­   Force  =     Mass   times   acceleration  ­Gravitational   acceleration   is   the   same   for   all   objects  ­Net  f orce   is   not   necessarily   he   same.  3rd   Law­   For   every   force   there   is   an   equal   and   opposite   reaction   force.    ~Conservation   Laws:  ­Conservation   of   Momentum:   Newton’s   2nd   and   3rd   laws   imply   conservation   of   momentum.   ­Momentum=   mass   times   velocity  ­Angular   Momentum=   mass   times   velocity   times   radius   ­Angular   momentum   is   conserved   and   is   only   changed   by   external   torque.    ~Types   of   Energy   ­Kinetic  E   nergy:   Energy   of   Motion  ­Radiative   energy:   Energy   of   light  ­Thermal   Energy:   Temperature  ­Potential   Energy:   Energy   you   can   release   in   some   other   form.  ­Astrophysical   Gravitational   Energy:   Material   heats   up   as   it   falls   inward   and   gets   more   dense.  ­Mass   Energy:   E=mc^2    ~Gravity  ­The   Universal   Law   of  G   ravitation:         ­Every   mass   attracts   every   other  ass.        ­Attraction   is   directly   proportional   to   the   product   of   their   masses.        ­Attraction   is   inversely   proportional   to   the   square   of   the   distant   between   their   centers.     Force=Mass1  x      Mass2      distance    Book  N   otes  4.1­4.5  ­The   acceleration   of   gravity.   Basically,   when   acceleration   is   caused   by   gravity.   If   you   dropped   something  off   of   a   building   the   object   would   accelerate   while   falling   due   to   gravity.                            ­The   only   way   to   change   an   object's   momentum   is   to   apply   force   to   it  ­A   change   in   momentum   happens   when   the   net   force   is   not   zero  ­Gravitational   Energy:   This   depends   on   the   object’s   mass   and   how   far   it   can   fall,   due   to   gravity.  ­When   the   moon   orbits   the   Earth   the   amount   of   attraction   with   regards   to   gravity   can   have   and   effect   on  the   rising   and   falling   of   the   tides.                                  ­A.   Jackson   


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