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week 1

by: Katie Becker

week 1 geog 1010

Katie Becker


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Global Geography
James Norwood
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Becker on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to geog 1010 at Auburn University taught by James Norwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Global Geography GEOG 1010 Introduction Lecture 1. Auburn University Jim Norwood Where is Timbuktu located and why? • The questions where and why are central to geography • Some interests among geographers are location, spatial relationships, and connections between the environment and people • Geographers seek to understand why different places have different sights, sounds, smells, and arrangements of features • Geographers often think on several scales from the local to the global Where Is It? Why Is It There? Why Does It Matter? In making a map and analyzing it, you have engaged in several aspects of geography: - Landscape observation - Description of Earth’s surface and consideration of the natural environment - Spatial analysis (the study of how people, objects, or ideas are related to one another across space) - The use of different scales of analysis - Cartography (the making of maps) What Is Geography? • Geography is the study of our planet’s surface and the processes that shape it • Geography is unique in that it links the physical sciences with the social sciences • Physical geographers have generally focused on how Earth’s physical processes work • Human geography is the study of the various aspects of human life that create the distinctive landscapes and regions of the world • Physical and human geography are often tightly linked GEOGRAPHIC REALMS Realms are based on Spatial Criteria • The largest geographical unit into which the inhabited world can be divided • Based on both physical (natural) and human (cultural) yardsticks • The result of the interaction between human societies and natural environments • A functional interaction • Revealed by farms, mines, fishing ports, transport routes, dams, bridges, villages, and other features on the landscape WORLD GEOGRAPHIC REALMS • Geographic realms change over time. • Where geographic realms meet, transition zones, not sharp boundaries, mark their contacts. TRANSITION ZONES • An area of spatial change where peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join • Marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish neighboring realms GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION EFFECT OF SCALE REGIONS • Areas of the earth’s surface marked by certain properties • Scientific devices that enable us to make spatial generalizations • Based on criteria we establish • Criteria can be: u Human (cultural) properties u Physical (natural) characteristics u or a combination of both of the above REGIONS All Regions Have:Area, Boundaries, and Location FORMAL REGION • Marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena • Also called a uniform or homogeneous region FUNCTIONAL REGION A region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal structure • A spatial system focused on a central core • A region formed by a set of places and their functional integration • Also called a “nodal” region HINTERLAND • Literally means “country behind” • A term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center • Urban center is the focus of goods and services produced in the hinterland, and is the latter’s dominant focal point as well THE PHYSICAL SETTING Natural Landscapes: Continental Drift, Tectonic Plates, Subduction CLIMATE THE PHYSICAL SETTING Pacific Ring of Fire


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