KIN 312 Fall 2016 Wu Week 4 lecture notes "Motor Abilities"
KIN 312 Fall 2016 Wu Week 4 lecture notes "Motor Abilities" KIN 312
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Wong on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 312 at California State University Long Beach taught by Wilbur Wu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Motor Control in Kinesiology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 4 Natalie Wong “Intro to Motor Control” (contd.) & “Motor Abilities” ***Notes are derived from Dr. Wu’s PPT lectures “Intro to Motor Control” (contd.) I. 2 ways to evaluate which theory is correct: a. Sheridan’s Characteristics of Human Movement i. Flexibility = recruiting muscles and joints to achieve the same action ii. Uniqueness = no two movements are EVER performed the same way iii. Consistency = temporal and spatial characteristics remain stable from one performance to another iv. Modifiability = modify movement while it’s being executed ***How do these characteristics relate to the theories of motor control? Reflex Theory Schema Theory Ecological/Dynamical Patterns Flexibility No Yes Yes Uniqueness No Yes Yes Consistency Yes Yes Yes Modifiability No Yes Yes ***Since Reflex theory is neither flexible, unique, or modifiable, it can be ruled out. We knew this from the previous lecture! We discussed that reflex theory is, while not classically used to explain motor control, a historical theory, and therefore must be included for that purpose. b. Degrees of Freedom Problem i. Degrees of Freedom = independent components of a complex system ii. The Problem = How does a nervous system control the many different degrees of freedom limbs and joints to enable a person to perform an action as intended? GMP Explanation - GMP indicates: Which muscle will be activated Duration Amount of force Sequencing Ecological Explanation - Individuals constrain muscles and joints in a way that is appropriate for the action - Muscle response structures/coordinative synergies are learned or genetic II. Which Theory is correct? a. No current agreement on answer b. Both are technically correct, but in some cases, one theory will work better than the other “Motor Abilities” I. Ability vs Motor Ability KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 4 Natalie Wong a. Ability = general trait or capacity that is relatively longterm which serves as a determinant of a person’s achievement potential for the performance of specific skills i. Ex: intellect, artistry/creativity, craftsmanship, etc. b. Motor Ability = ability specific to the performance of a motor skill i. Ex: accuracy, athleticism? (not a word motor control analysts like to use because it is very broad), ii. IndividualDifference variables = performance of motor skill depends on individual’s motor abilities that are beneficial to the performance of the skill Ex: Gymnasts – short to accommodate apparatus structural constraints; shorter body means lower center of mass and shorter levers greater ability to flip and rotate in the air and greater stability Ex: Tennis Players – tall to reach tennis ball in longitudinal and lateral ranges, cover court in fewer steps, greater force in serve because longer arms II. General vs Specific Motor Abilities a. General motor ability hypothesis = many different motor abilities that exist in an individual are highly related and can be characterized in terms of a singular, global motor ability i. Ex: Tiger Woods – motor ability crossover in golf, NBA, and NFL b. Specificity of motor abilities = many motor abilities an individual possesses are relatively independent i. Supported by Franklin Henry (1961) who used reaction time and arm movement time to show that the two are unrelated. Scenario 1 – quick reaction time, but slow arm movement Scenario 2 – slow reaction time, but ability to move arm fast ii. SO! Motor abilities are independent III. Balance and Timing Motor Abilities a. Balance i. Static (stationary) vs dynamic (moving) balance – these types of balance indicate that there are also many motor abilities for balancing ii. Ex: peripheral neuropathy patient (chronic tingles in limbs, like when your foot falls asleep) can stand and walk but must have some kind of support to completely balance iii. Ex: riding a bike (dynamic balance) is different from balancing on a bike in a stationary position (static balance) b. Timing – specific to the requirements of the skill being performed rather than a general timing ability i. External = when timing is determined by what is going on in the environment Ex: hitting a baseball – determined by when and how the pitcher throws the ball ii. Internal = when timing is predetermined by the body/is routine Ex: Timing required to execute a dance routine – specific timing to steps and choreography as a whole IV. “The AllAround Athlete” = a person with multiple motor abilities at high levels a. People have abilities that range high, average, and low b. Often, allaround athlete has 1 or 2 high level motor abilities that overlap among activites KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 4 Natalie Wong V. Identifying Motor Abilities a. Use Fleishman’s Taxonomy ***on BeachBoard! You must memorize the definitions to each motor ability OVERLYING CONCEPT: abilities underlie performance!
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