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Engl 219; Week 3 Bound Root Morphemes & Hierarchical Structure

by: Brittany Sholl

Engl 219; Week 3 Bound Root Morphemes & Hierarchical Structure English 219

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Linguistics > English 219 > Engl 219 Week 3 Bound Root Morphemes Hierarchical Structure
Brittany Sholl
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover week 3 of class and discuss bound root morphemes, hierarchical structure, & sign language morphology. :)
Introduction to Linguistics
Class Notes
root, root, morphemes, morphemes, english, 219, hierarchical, structure, sign, Language, morphology, english
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Sholl on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to English 219 at Iowa State University taught by Sonsaat in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Linguistics in Linguistics at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Bound Root Morphemes & Hierarchical Structure Tuesday, September 6, 2016 12:41 PM Bound root morphemes: cranberry morphemes  Used to have its own meeting but now doesn't have any meaning on its own  Used to be free but now meaningless on its own  "fossilized words" EX: Anthropology: is a compound of two bound roots {Anthropo +logy} Anthropo: man/human (o)logy: branch of science Rule productivity: Dervational affixes are productive to different extents: -able can be affixed to any verb to create an adjective Un- is most productive for adjectives derived from verbs and words with polysyllabic bases Exceptions Not all words undergo regular morphological processes  Foot---> feet  Go---> went  Child--> children {These words must be learned separately} {When new words enter a language, regular morphological rules apply to them, borrowed words can contain borrowed morphology} Blending: is telescoping two words together EX: Brunch--> breakfast & lunch Compounds: joining two or more words together to make a new word EX: landlord Hierarchical Structure of Words {Morphemes are added to a base in a fixed order which reflects the structure of a word} EX: un + system + atic adjective adjective Un System (noun) atic Un- + ADJECTIVE --> adj. (unkind, unapologetic) Un- + Adverb --> Verb (undo, untie) Noun + -atic ---> adj. (systematic, charismatic, problematic) **{Not all words go through the regular morphological processes!!} EX: Foot ---> feet Go ---> went Child---> children {These words must be learned separately since rules don't apply to them.} {When new words enter the language, regular morphological rules generally apply to them.} EX: the plural of fax became faxes instead of faxen {Borrowed words may retain borrowed morphology} Back-formations: new words can be created through misanalysis of morpheme boundaries EX: Babysit---> babysitter Edit---> editor Televise ---> television Clipping: snipping a section of a word to form a shortened form EX: Gas---> gasoline Stat---> statistics Blending: telescoping two words together EX: Brunch---> breakfast + lunch Compounds: joining two or more words together to make a new wor EX: landlord {The rightmost word in a compound is the head, which determines its meaning and part of speech} EX: Noun + adjective = adjective (headstrong) {The stress on English compounds falls on the first word} EX: greenhouse vs. green house {Two-word compounds are the most common, but there may not be an upper limit} Compounds with: Space: hot dog Hyphen: ready-to-wear, daughter-in-law No space: greenhouse, however **{The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meaning of its parts, but is a universal process for creating new words} {We can use our knowledge of morphemes and morphological rules to guess the meaning of words we don’t know, even if our guesses are wrong} Sign Language Morphology {Like spoken languages, signs have parts of speech, roots and affixes, and morphemes that can be free, bound, derivational or inflectional}  Affixation can occur by adding another sign before or after the root sign  The negation suffix is a rapid turning over of the hand(s) after the root sign {Sign languages can also allow the stem and the affixes to be signed simultaneously, an option not available in spoken languages}


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