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Chapter 4 Notes (9/19/16)

by: Symone Sparks

Chapter 4 Notes (9/19/16) Sociology 101

Symone Sparks
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About this Document

These notes are the notes we took on Chapter 4 in class.
Intro to Sociology
Amber Kalb
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Symone Sparks on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 101 at George Mason University taught by Amber Kalb in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Social Science at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Chapter 4: Socialization, Interaction, and the Self The Process of Socialization  Socialization: the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group  Socialization process begins in infancy and lasts through lifetime  Language facilitates socialization The Development of the Self  The self: our experience of a personal identity, which is separate and different from all other people  Sociologists believe the self is created and modified through interaction during the lifespan  Sigmund Freud: theories have helped sociologists gain a better understanding of social behavior  Freud developed the idea of the subconscious mind and the unconscious mind, which he believed controls most our drives, impulses, thoughts, and behaviors  Charles Cooley: believed that the sense of self depends on seeing oneself reflected in interactions with others  Looking-glass self: the self develops through our perception of others' evaluations and appraisals of us  George Herbert Mead: believed that the self was created through social interaction and that is process started in childhood o Believed the self develops in 3 stages: o Preparatory stage (mimic/imitate) o The play stage (taking the role of the significant other) o Game stage (take on the perspective of the generalized 'other')  The acquisition of language skills coincides with the growth of mental capacities, including the ability to think of ourselves as separate and distinct and to see ourselves in relationship to others  Erving Goffman: believed that meaning is constructed through interaction  Dramaturgy: comparing social interaction to theater, where individuals take on roles and at them out for an audience  Impression management: the process of working to control the impressions have of us The Thomas Theorem  W.I Thomas stated that " if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences"  The way we define each situation, then becomes its reality Agents of Socialization  The social groups, institutions, and individuals that provide structured situations where socialization happens  Major agents: o Family o Schools o Peers o Mass Media  Family : most significant agent of socialization, teaches us the basic values and norms that shape our identity  Schools: provide education and socialize us through a hidden curriculum (a set of values and behaviors such as punctuality, neatness, discipline, hard work, competition, and obedience) that teaches many of the behaviors deemed important later in life  Peers: provide different social skills and often become more immediately significant than the family, especially as children move through adolescence  Mass Media: often overrides the family and other institutions in instilling values and norms  Resocialization: the process of replacing previously learned norms and values with new ones as a part of transition in life  Total institution: an institution (ex: prisons, cults, mental hospitals) that cuts individuals off from the rest of society so that their lives can be controlled and regulated Statuses and Roles  Status: position in society that comes with a set of expectations o Ascribed status: one we're born with that is unlikely to change o Achieved status: one we have earned through our individual effort or that is imposed by others  Master status: a status that seems to override all others and affects all other statuses that we possess  Roles: set of behaviors expected from a particular status  Role conflict: when the roles associated with one status clash with the roles associated with a different status  Role strain: when roles associated with a single status clash  Either roles may lead to role exits Emotions and Personality  We tend to believe that our emotions are highly personal and individual , there are social patterns in our emotional responses  Emotional responses are socially constructed , meaning they are influenced by social and cultural context  Emotion work: the process if evoking, suppressing, or managing feelings to create a public display of emotion New Interactional Contexts  Sociologists are interested in interactions that occur in copresence( when individuals are in one another's physical presence) and the way that modern technology enables us to interact with people very far away  Postmodern theorists claim that the role of technology in interaction is one of the primary features of postmodern life  We are now exposed to many more sources that help us shape our sense of self than the generations before us were


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