Dixie Hu In class notes taken throughout the semester of Autumn 2015
Dixie Hu In class notes taken throughout the semester of Autumn 2015 Psychology 1100
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andres Ballesteros on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 1100 at Ohio State University taught by Dixie Hu in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see intro to psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
PSYCH 1100 ☆☆☆☆☆ Correlation- direction and strength of the relation between two variables. VARIABLE? Anything that varies from person to person Take measurements and then compare them to each other….three types of correlations: positive correlation and negative correlation and zero correlation which means variables not related at all. ☆☆☆☆☆ Correlation is different from causation. ☆☆☆☆☆ Experiment- Research method that tests hypotheses and allows researchers to make conclusions about causality. ☆☆☆☆☆ Independent variable- variable that can be manipulated ☆☆☆☆☆ Dependent variable that depends on independent variable (that we measure) ☆☆☆☆☆ Control group- necessary to prove or disprove that uncontrolled group went through change or effect. ☆☆☆☆☆ Experimental group- group that is exposed to the IV (ex. anxiety through horror film) ****You are not required to be told if you are in the experimental or control group. ☆☆☆☆☆ Confounding variables- variables irrelevant to the hypothesis being tested but can alter a researchers conclusions. ☆☆☆☆☆ Placebo- an inactive substance that mimics a real, experimental substance or treatment. ☆☆☆☆☆ Operationalization- defining your variables in practical terms that can be measured. ☆☆☆☆☆ Meta-analysis- a way to statistically combine the results of several previous studies on a topic. ☆☆☆☆☆ Longitudinal study- data obtained from the same individuals at intervals over a long period for age-related changes ☆☆☆☆☆ Cross- sectional study- collecting data just once; for age- related changes, gather people at different ages. ☆☆☆☆☆ Mixed longitudinal design- observing a cross-section of people over a shorter period of time. ☆☆☆☆☆ Double-blind procedure- when neither participant and a researcher knows who is in each group ☆☆☆☆☆ Reliable= precise (according to dart board) ☆☆☆☆☆ Validity= accurate (according to dart board) ☆☆☆☆☆ Descriptive statistics- methods to organize data into meaningful patterns and summaries. (same as central tendency) ☆☆☆☆☆ Mode- most frequently occurring score ☆☆☆☆☆ Standard deviation- measure of how tightly clustered a group of scores are around the mean ☆☆☆☆☆ Normal deviation- graphical depiction of the frequency of scores that is symmetrical and centered around the mean ☆☆☆☆☆ Inferential statistics- methods that allow us to extend our results to larger population ☆☆☆☆☆ Generalize- extend conclusions to larger populations outside our research sample ☆☆☆☆☆ Null hypothesis- hypothesis stating the default position that there is no real difference or correlation between two measures. ☆☆☆☆☆ Statistical significance- standard for deciding whether a result is due to chance ☆☆☆☆☆ Informed consent- permission from a participant after risks and benefits have been explained. ☆☆☆☆☆ Biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience- field of study that combines psychology with biology, physiology, biochemistry, and neuroscience ☆☆☆☆☆ Levels of study: genetic, structural, neurochemical, behavioral CHAPTER 2 ☆☆☆☆☆ Two major components: PNS, and CNS ☆☆☆☆☆ PNS into somatic (controls voluntary muscles and transmits sensory info to CNS) and autonomic (Controls involuntary bodily functions, emotion regulation) and then divides into parasympathetic (rest and digest) and sympathetic (fight or flight) ☆☆☆☆☆ Spinal cord- major conduit for information flowing to and from the brain ☆☆☆☆☆ Brainstem- moving upward from the spinal cord, the part of the brain that contains the medulla, pons and midbrain. ☆☆☆☆☆ Medulla: lies above spinal cord and responsible for many essential functions (heart rate and blood pressure)-if damage results then Alzheimer’s may occur ☆☆☆☆☆ Pons- just above medulla managing: sleep. arousal and facial expressions. Pon means bridge, between higher and lower portions of the brain and connects ☆☆☆☆☆ Midbrain- sits above pons, involved in sensory reflexes and pain (PAG or Pariaqueductal gray is important in pain management site for endorphin receptors) ☆☆☆☆☆ Reticular formation-runs along the brainstem core from the upper medulla into the midbrain important in controlling mood, arousal, and sleep. (source of serotonin and norepinephrine) ☆☆☆☆☆ cerebellum-sits behind pons, essential for balance and motor coordination subcortical structures: ☆☆☆☆☆ Thalamus- gateway or relay station near the center of the brain; receives input from sensory systems and relays information to and from cortex. (also in memory and conscious states. ☆☆☆☆☆ Basal ganglia-curving around the thalamus a group of structures involved in voluntary movement , receive info from brainstem and send it to the cortex (parkinson’s disease- degeneration of basal ganglia) ☆☆☆☆☆ hypothalamus- sits under thalamus, involved in motivation and homeostasis. Regulation of body functions ☆☆☆☆☆ hippocampus- shaped like a curved sea horse, important in new and long-term memory formation. ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ Amygdala- almond shaped structure, emotional processing, important in remembering, and responding to fear and aggression -> cues body to react to survival relevant threats. ☆☆☆☆☆ Cingulate cortex- a fold of tissue just under the cortex like a sideways “c” involved in emotion regulation, error detection, decision- making, anticipating rewards, and empathy. ☆☆☆☆☆ Nucleus accumbens- tiny structure by the from tip of the cingulate cortex, important in reward and pressure. ☆☆☆☆☆ Cerebral cortex- thin layer of cells forming the wrinkly outer surface of the brain’s hemisphere. ☆☆☆☆☆ Frontal lobe- important for sophisticated cognitive functions ☆☆☆☆☆ *Orbitofrontal cortex- part of prefrontal cortex involved in emotion regulation and impulse control causing deficits in social behavior, decision making, and emotional experience. Also includes primary motor cortex for voluntary movement. ☆☆☆☆☆ Temporal lobe- side of the brain, important in audio processing ☆☆☆☆☆ Parietal lobe- top of the brain, contains primary somatosensory cortex, important in sensation (touch, taste pain, skin, temperature, and body position. ☆☆☆☆☆ Occipital lobe- at the back of the brain; important in visual processing. ☆☆☆☆☆ Corpus callosum-large bundle of nerve fibers that connects left and right hemisphere of brain ☆☆☆☆☆ Lateralization- localization of a function in either right or left hemisphere. ☆☆☆☆☆ Somatic nervous system- voluntary movement from the CNS to muscles, and sensory info from body to the CNS. ☆☆☆☆☆ Autonomic nervous system- involuntary bodily functions. ☆☆☆☆☆ Enteric nervous system- nerve cells embedded in the lining of the gastrointestinal system, often called a second brain. Gastrointestinal pain, hunger. ☆☆☆☆☆ The endocrine system- system responsible for release of hormones from glands into the bloodstream. ☆☆☆☆☆ Hypothalamus-responsible for hormones for sleeping/waking, metabolism, digestion, hunger, etc. ☆☆☆☆☆ Neurons- cells of the nervous system specialized for sending and receiving neural messages. ☆☆☆☆☆ Cell body- large central mass of a neuron containing the nucleus ☆☆☆☆☆ Dendrites-branches that receive input from other neurons. ☆☆☆☆☆ Axons-large branch down the neuron responsible for transmitting info to other neurons ☆☆☆☆☆ Axon terminals- the buds at the end of the axon that send chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) to other neurons ☆☆☆☆☆ Myelin- fatty layer coiled around the axon that insulates and speed neural signals, made of glial cells ☆☆☆☆☆ Glial cells- special support cells in the brain and spinal cord without which neurons will die. ☆☆☆☆☆ *neurons do not touch each other ☆☆☆☆☆ synapse- the point of communication between two neurons, a gap where electrical signals cannot be sent. - ☆☆☆☆☆ neurotransmitters are released into synapse ☆☆☆☆☆ receptors-special channels on the receiving neuron that bind with neurotransmitters like a lock and key. ☆☆☆☆☆ Process for neurotransmitter into extracellular fluid - NT’s bind to receptors of another neuron - Reuptake- NT’s are returned to the axon terminal from which they came - Leftover NT’s are destroyed by enzymes ☆☆☆☆☆ Acetylcholine- -movement - memory -ANS function (heart rate, blood pressure, muscle contraction) ☆☆☆☆☆ Epinephrine (adrenaline) -arousal ☆☆☆☆☆ norepinephrine- arousal, vigilance ☆☆☆☆☆ dopamine-reward, planning, movement ☆☆☆☆☆ serotonin- mood, appetite, sleep cycles ☆☆☆☆☆ glutamate- excitation brain activity ☆☆☆☆☆ gaba- inhibition of brain activity ☆☆☆☆☆ endorphin- deal with pain ☆☆☆☆☆ transduction- the translation of incoming sensory info into neural signals. ☆☆☆☆☆ Sensory adaptation- the tendency to pay less attention to non-changing source of stimulation. ☆☆☆☆☆ Bottom-up processing- building sample input into more complex perceptions. ☆☆☆☆☆ Top-down processing- using the knowledge we’ve gained from prior experience to help us interpret incoming information. ☆☆☆☆☆ Psychophysics- study of relationships between physical qualities of stimuli and our perceptions of them. ☆☆☆☆☆ Absolute threshold- smallest amount of stimulus that can be detected. ☆☆☆☆☆ Difference threshold- the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli ☆☆☆☆☆ Signal detection- correctly identifying when a faint stimulus is or isn’t present. ☆☆☆☆☆ Vision- the sense that allows us to process reflected light. ☆☆☆☆☆ Amplitude-height of waves, conveys brightness ☆☆☆☆☆ Cornea- clear surface at the outer part of the eye that directs light into the retina ☆☆☆☆☆ Light enters the pupil-> the opening formed by the iris ☆☆☆☆☆ Iris- the brightly covered circular muscle surrounding the pupil of the eye. ☆☆☆☆☆ Lens- the clear structure behind the pupil that bends light toward the retina ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ Retina- the layers of visual processing cells in the back of the eye ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ Optic disk- area in back of the eye with no visual processing cells resulting in blind spots. ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ ☆ Fovea- are of the retina specialized for highly detailed vision- responsible for central vision ☆☆☆☆☆ Photoreceptors- specialized cell that converts light into neural signals by absorbing light photons. ☆☆☆☆☆ Rods- photoreceptor in retina that detects dim light ☆☆☆☆☆ Cones- photoreceptors in the retina that process fine details and color. ☆☆☆☆☆ Optic nerve- the nerve exiting the retina of the eye. ☆☆☆☆☆ Optic tracts: visual pathways in the brain beyond the optic chiasm ☆☆☆☆☆ Trichromatic theory- proposes 3 different types of cones for detecting short (red, green, and blue) determining wavelengths. ☆☆☆☆☆ Opponent process theory- proposes a red-green color channel and blue-yellow color channel; activation of one color inhibits within each channel ☆☆☆☆☆ Gestalt principles- tendencies to organize incoming sensory info in certain ways. Gestalt= shape ☆☆☆☆☆ Depth perception – the ability to use the 2D image projected on retina to perceive 3D ☆☆☆☆☆ Monocular cue- depth cue that requires use of only one eye ☆☆☆☆☆ Binocular cue- depth cue that requires use of both eyes. ☆☆☆☆☆ Retinal disparity - the difference between the images projected onto each eye ☆☆☆☆☆ Consciousness- state of being awareness ☆☆☆☆☆ Self-awareness- special type of consciousness, understanding ourselves as distinct from objects or others ☆☆☆☆☆ Several meanings: level of alertness, aware of ongoing sensations, self-awareness, ☆☆☆☆☆ Default Mode Network-structures active during unconscious, background activity or “mind wandering”. ☆☆☆☆☆ Circadian rhythms- cyclical changes that occur on roughly 24 hour basis ☆☆☆☆☆ Biological clocks- internal mechanisms that provide regular schedule for various physical processes controlled by hypothalamus. (receive cues from environment known as zeitgebers) ☆☆☆☆☆ Major depressive disorder- symptoms of depression during the winter months as a result of reduced daylight. ☆☆☆☆☆ EEG- measures electrical brain activity. Gamma waves= sensory processing (>30 Hz), beta waves= alert, actively thinking (15- 30 Hz), alpha waves=relaxed but awake (9-12 Hz). ☆☆☆☆☆ NREM- four stages, slow theta and delta waves, deep physical relaxation. (1 = light stage of sleep 4-7 Hz last 10-15 minutes, 2= reduced heart rate and muscle tension brain waves further slow complexes and sleep spindles (special waves in EEG) lasts about 15-20 minutes, 3 and 4= delta waves 1-4Hz, deeply asleep, sleepwalking) ☆☆☆☆☆ REM- dreaming, muscle paralysis, sympathetic nervous system active. (dreaming, high brain activity increased HR and BP and muscle paralysis) ☆☆☆☆☆ Activation synthesis theory- dreams reflect the activated brains attempt to make sense of sensory information during REM sleep. ☆☆☆☆☆ Lucid dreaming- becoming aware that one is dreaming and using this to control the dream content. ☆☆☆☆☆ Sleep terrors- waking with feelings of terror/dread during NREM sleep, often within the first three hours. ☆☆☆☆☆ Insomnia- difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep Onset insomnia-lying in bed for long periods without going to sleep Maintenance insomnia- frequently wake up or early waking ☆☆☆☆☆ Narcolepsy- sudden attacks of REM sleep during waking ☆☆☆☆☆ Cataplexy- sudden muscle paralysis during waking ✓memory- ability to retain knowledge (information processing)-> encoding, storage, and retrieval. ✓Encoding- acquiring information and transferring it to memory. ✓Storage- retaining encoded information ✓Retrieval- recovering stored information ✓Sensory memory- first stage very brief, divided into visual (1/2 sec), aurual (3 sec), and tactile (10 sec) ✓Short-term memory- next stage (requires attention)-lasts 30 seconds at most, limited capacity (7+/- 2 items) ✓Rehearsal- repeating information ✓Chunking- grouping similar info together ✓Working memory- an expected model of STM (actively manipulating info)->top down processing in prefrontal cortex. ✓Long term memory- final stage, virtually limitless capacity and duration. (from short term memory through rehearsal) separated into declarative(separated into episodic and semantic and procedural, autobiographical memory) non-declarative (procedural and priming)-> unconsciously retrieved. ✓Levels of processing theory- more deeply we transform info the better it is remembered. ✓Serial position effect- tendency to remember first and last items and forget the middle items ✓Procedural memory- skill memories ✓Priming- changing your response due to exposure. ✓Spreading activation model- organize general knowledge based on personal experiences. ✓Schemas- set of expectations about objects and situations (more likely retainable) ✓Retrieval- remember one at a time . ✓Cues- stimuli that aid in retrieval ✓Encoding specificity- when extra information becomes encoded into LTM and helps in retrieval. ✓Tip of the tongue phenomenon- failure to retrieve while having partial recall and feeling close. ✓Reconstruction-rebuilding a memory out of stored elements. ✓Flashbulb memory- vivid detail memory of an emotional event. (stress learning->enhanced memory) (stress before or after learning-> impaired memory) ✓Forgetting- decrease in ability to remember a previously formed memory ✓Decay- when our ability to retrieve info we don’t use fades over time. ✓Interference-competition between newer and older info in memory usually within minutes to hours of learning. ✓Motivated forgetting- failure to retrieve unpleasant or threatening memories. ✓Long-term potentiation- enhanced communication between two neurons ✓Acetylcholine (ACh)- drugs blocking ACh also interfere with memory formation ✓Glutamate- NDMA receptors. Increased activity-> enhanced memory formation ✓Mnemonics-memory aids that link new to well-known info ✓Reflexes- inevitable, involuntary responses to stimuli (autonomic and reliable)=not conscious, inflexible ✓Instincts- inborn patterns of behavior elicited by environmental stimuli(fixed action patterns)=not always conscious, more complex than reflex, and reliable) ✓Learning-relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. ✓Associative learning- forming associations between at least two stimuli: classical and operant conditioning. ✓Non-associative learning-response to single stimulus and how much it changes: habituation, sensitization. ✓Observational learning- learning by watching the behavior of others. ✓Habituation- reduced responding to repeated, unchanging and harmless stimulus. ✓Sensitization- increase responding to stimuli after exposure to strong stimulus. ✓Classical conditioning- forming associations between two stimuli that occur sequentially in time. ✓Unconditioned stimulus- stimulus that elicits an automatic response(dog food) ✓Unconditioned response- automatic response to a stimulus that does not need to be learned (drool). ✓Conditioned stimulus- initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with unconditioned stimulus (fork/ bell) ✓Conditioned response- response previously associated with non- neutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning (drool to fork) ✓ (acquisition- developing learned response, ✓extinction- reduction of a learned response, ✓spontaneous recovery- evidence that extinction is not forgetting- when CR reappears after period of rest , ✓inhibition-classically conditioning predicts the nonoccurrence of unconditioned stimulus, ✓generalization-tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to an original CS, ✓discrimination-ability to distinguish between stimuli, ✓higher order conditioning-when stimuli associated with CS also elicit a UCR , ✓latent inhibition- slower learning when a CS s familiar compared to when the CS is unfamiliar) ✓Taste aversion-classically conditioned aversions to certain foods (CS) that have been paired with illness (UCR). ✓Aversion therapy-exposing patients to a CS paired with unpleasant UCS. ✓Systematic desensitization- learning to relax while being exposed to feared stimuli. ✓Operant conditioning-forming associations between behavior and its outcome. ✓Reinforcement- increase behavior ✓Punishment- decrease behavior, any consequence that reduces frequency of behavior ✓Positive reinforcement-increasing behavior by providing desired outcome. ✓Negative reinforcement- increasing behavior by removing or avoiding and undesired outcome. ✓Premack principle- positively reinforcing a less frequent behavior with more frequent behavior ✓Primary reinforce- natural rewards, often related to survival ✓Conditioned reinforce- (secondary reinforcer) valued indirectly by being associated with primary reinforcers. ✓Positive punishment- reduces behavior by applying unpleasant outcome ✓Negative punishment- reduces behavior by removing a desirable outcome. ✓Partial reinforcement-reinforcing only occasionally; greater resistance to extinction ✓Partial reinforcement effect in extinction- if you only sometimes rewards that behavior is less likely to extinguish. ✓Fixed ratio (FR) schedule-reinforce after regular number of responses. ✓ Variable ratio (VR) schedule- after random number of responses ✓ Fixed interval schedule- timed intervals ✓ Variable interval schedule- after varying time intervals ✓ Method of successive approximations- gradually increasing behaviors that come closer to target behavior. Infant Physical Development Nervous System Development -Burst in gray matter growth up to 18 months -Use it or lose it-> delete unused neurons/ synapses ✓ Motor Development -Head to foot: babies can first control their head --Near to far: starts from trunk outward --simple to complex large muscle groups first ✓ Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget -Children not just miniature adults -cognitive abilities develop through stages ✓ Assimilation -incorporating new info an existing schema (no change in schemas) ✓ Accomodation -incorporating new info into an existing schema that requires revision of schemas. ✓ Sensorimotor stage -birth to 2 years -focus on here and now -out of sight, out of mind -no mental representation if not present ✓ Preoperational stage -2 to 7 years -construct mental representation of experience -use symbols in language, drawings as representations of ideas - egocentrism-inability to understand point of view of others ✓ Concrete Operational Stage -7 to 11 years - thinking becomes more logical -hands- on learning -inability to handle abstract concepts ✓Formal Operational Stage - Begins around 12 years through adulthood - Ability to handle abstract concepts (”what if”) -problems solving ability ✓Lev Vygotsky -development takes place within social and cultural environments ✓Theory of mind -understanding that others thoughts different from ones own(starts around 3 to 4 years old) ✓Naïve theories -very young children can understand much about objects and how they work. ✓Temperament -prevailing pattern of mood, activity and emotional responsiveness (genetic, bold/adventurous, interacts with parenting/environment) ✓attachment- emotional bond lining an infant to a parent/caregiver Attachment styles ✓Secure(60%) ✓Insecure ✓Avoidant(20%),✓anxious-ambivalent(15%✓disorganized (5%) ✓Parenting styles Authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, uninvolved Adolescence ✓Adolescence-period of development beginning at puberty, ending at young adulthood ✓Puberty- period of physical changes leading to sexual maturity ✓Secondary sex characteristics: physical changes at puberty associated with sexual maturity (peaks gray matter around 11-12, earlier maturation of structures of emotion, maturation of PFC (not mature yet) structures, white matter (myelin) matures into adulthood ✓cognitive development -working memory, reaction time, problem solving and logical reasoning ✓pre-conventional morality- moral choices made due to expectations of reward/ punishment ✓conventional morality-moral choice made according to law/public opinion. ✓Post-conventional morality-moral choices made according to personal standards and reason ✓Stress- unpleasant emotional state that results from the perception of danger. ✓General adaptation syndrome- our characteristic set of responses to stressors ✓3 stages: alarm reaction (stressor first perceived and identified), resistance (stressors are prolonged, requires additional adapting and coping), and exhaustion (long lasting stressors, strength and energy are low, at risk for depression) ✓tragedies and disasters produce stress in most people ✓positive events- produce high levels of stress. ✓Hassles-relatively insignificant sources of stress. ✓Biology of stress- tying together what we’ve learned from biology, sensation, and perception. ✓Amygdala then talks to hypothalamus, then out to the rest of the body. ✓ (HPA) Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis- stress response that releases cortisol into bloodstream (hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal cortex) ✓ (SAM) Sympathetic medullary adrenal system- stress response that releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into bloodstream. (increased sympathetic nervous system activity ✓Cortisol- stress hormone released into bloodstream. Regulated by feedback loop to hippocampus. ✓Tend to befriend- stress response by protecting children and forming social alliances and bonds. ✓Women show less activity in structures controlling arousal, especially when hormones are highest during menstrual cycle because women get pregnant therefore more protective. ✓Immune system- body system defends against infection and cancer. (suppress of lymphocytes) ✓Lymphocytes- white blood cells that protect us from invading pathogens. ✓Type A personality- competitive , workaholic, and sometimes hostile personality type.-hostility-chronic negative outlook that involves feelings, thoughts, and overt actions->heart disease. ✓Cortisol-released in high does in morning (late night stress->cortisol released->sleep loss->mood) can lead to depression -cortisol unlocks receptors in fat cells->weight gains ✓health psychology- branch of psychology that investigates relationships between psychological variable sand health. ✓Biopsychosocial model- health result of biological, psychological, and social factors. ✓Tobacco-leading cause of preventable death. ✓Behavioral reasons-Dopamine release when smoking ✓Biological reasons- PFC (decision making) immature ✓Poor nutrition-being underweight or obese (BMI>30) ✓Stress coping- sleep, exercise, relaxation, social support, religious beliefs. ✓Problem-focused coping- designed to address the problem (meeting with instructor to discuss exam) ✓Emotion-focused coping- addresses the negative emotions arising in a situation.(happy hour after poor exam grade) ✓Relationship-focused coping- designed to maintain and protect social relationships. (providing empathy) ✓Resilience- ability to adapt to life’s challenges in positive ways ✓Emotion- combining physical sensation+conscious, subjective feelings ✓Arousal- produced by emotion stimulates action. ✓Yerkes-Dodson law- performance depends on arousal and task complexity. ✓Key players in emotion: Autonomic NS, subcortical brain structures, cerebral cortex (amygdala, insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex. ✓Insula- regions of cortex at the junction of the frontal and temporal lobes. --identification of emotional stimuli --initiation of arousal response ✓psychopath- deficiency in amygdala cingulate cortex- conscious appraisal of threat, pain processing ✓basal ganglia- voluntary movement, responds to facial disgust, experience of emotional intensity. ✓Cerebral cortex- left hemisphere (positive emotions), right hemisphere (negative emotions). ✓6 universal emotions: happy, sad, angry, disgusted, fearful, surprised. ✓Newborn babies smile spontaneously during REM sleep. ✓Display rules- culture and environments have effects on emotion. (Americans show more emotion alone than with group, while Japanese opposite) ✓Higher emotional intelligence for those that perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions. ✓Schizophrenia-reduced expression of emotion and ability to distinguish facial expressions ✓Autism- difficulty recognizing fearful expressions. ✓ James-lange theory- physical sensation to subjective feelings, emotions are result of sequence of events, distinct physical states for each feeling that we label. (pregame ritual in stadium versus on tv) ✓ Cannon- bard theory- physical sensations and subjective feelings occur simultaneously (leads to arousal and emotion) ✓ Schachter-singer two factor theory- general arousal leads to assessment (assessment= conscious, cognitive appraisal)(no physical state per feeling aka arousal) Stereotype- a simplified set of traits associated with membership in a group or category. Prejudice- attitude usually negative of another person on the basis of membership in a group. Discrimination- unfair behavior based on stereotyping and prejudice. Stereotype threat- performing more poorly due to anxiety about confirming a negative stereotype. Social norms- unwritten or unspoken rules for behavior in social settings Conformity- matching behavior and appearance to perceived social norms. Culture-free IQ testing- test items that do not rely onlanguage or special knowledge of U.S. culture. General intelligence (g) factor- a measure of an individuals overall intelligence. Fluid intelligence- logical thinking without the use of learned knowledge Crystallized intelligence- using specific learned knowledge. Gardner proposed 8 different types of intelligence. Sternberg proposed three: analytical, creative, and practical intelligence Social and emotional intelligence- important for adaptation and success Emotion regulation- managing emotions, reasoning about the mental states of others. Ability to delay gratification- an emotional skill that predicts academic achievement. Autism- ability to do some things but not others. Social cognitive learning theories- emphasize cognition and learning as sources of personality. Locus of control- typical ways we explain outcomes Reciprocal determinism-situations influence behavior but can influence the situation too. Self- efficacy- confidence in tour own abilities. Temperament- child’s pattern of mood, activity, or emotional responsiveness linked to later personality. Reactivity- responding to challenging stimuli Self-regulation- ability to control attention impulses. Behavioral approach system- outgoing kids Behavioral inhibition system- anxiety, shy no exploring Fight/ flight/ freeze system- not fully think about things Abnormal psychology- study of psychological disorders Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders- system for classifying psychological disorders. International statistical classification of diseases- another classification system Integrated approach to psych disorders- biological, clinical, developmental, individual, and social factors all play a role. Anorexia nervosa- maintenance of unusually low body weight and distorted body image. -> two body types restrictive- eating less food, binge-purge-restricted eating and compensatory behaviors. Bulimia nervosa- cycles of binge eating unusually large amounts of food, followed by purging through vomiting or laxatives. Binge-eating disorder- eating abnormally large amounts of food without compensatory behavior. Autism spectrum disorder- characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills often accompanied by repetitive and ritualistic behavior. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- characterized either by unusual inattentiveness, hyperactivity with impulsivity, or both.- >inattention, hyperactivity and sharp increase in diagnosis since 2003. Schizophrenia- disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought, disorders of movement, restricted emotion. Positive symptoms= psychosis, addition of symptoms Negative symptoms- abandonment of symptoms Positive symptoms: Delusions- false, illogical beliefs Hallucinations- false perceptions, auditory (most common), visual (taste, smell, and touch) Negative symptoms: Avolition, social withdrawal, restricted affect, poor working memory Bipolar disorder-mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of mania and depression. Caused by: -genetic predisposition -dysregulated dopamine pathways (L-dopa triggers mania in those with bipolar) -environmental factors:stress, disruption in circadian schedules, diet with omega-3 factor Mania- period of unrealistically elevated mood (goes on for a long time) Major depressive disorder- mood disorder characterized by (most of the day, every day for at least 2 weeks) Learned helplessness- when experiencing random/ uncontrolled consequences leads to feelings of helplessness and possibly depression. Anxiety disorders-disorders featuring anxiety that is not proportional to a person circumstances. Specific phobia- fears of objects or stimuli. Social anxiety disorder- fear of being evaluated or criticized by others, especially by others, especially during public speaking or meeting new people. Panic attacks- experience of intense feat and automatic arousal in the absence of real threat. Panic disorder- characterized by repeated panic attacks and fear of future attacks. Agoraphobia- unrealistic fear of open spaces, being outside the home, or being in a crowd. Generalized anxiety disorder- excessive anxiety and worry that is not correlated with particular objects or situations. Obsessive compulsive disorder- disorder associated with intrusive thoughts and compulsions. Obsessions- distressing, intrusive thoughts Compulsions-need to engage in repetitive, ritualistic behaviors. Post traumatic stress disorder-disorder caused by the experience of trauma, leading to flashbacks, dreams, hypervigilance, avoidance of stimuli associated with traumatic event.
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