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Biology of the mind; Week 3 notes

by: Courtney Notetaker

Biology of the mind; Week 3 notes Psyc 2010

Courtney Notetaker

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About this Document

“The brain is wider than the sky” -Emily Dickinson These are class note from Chapter 3!
Intro to Psychology
Jennifer Daniels
Class Notes
Biology, Pyschology, Of, The, mind, nuerons, daniels, auburn
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Biology of the Mind    “The brain is wider than the sky” ­Emily Dickinson    Neural Communication​; The body’s information system is built from billions of interconnected  cells called neurons  ­Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals  operate similarly when processing information  Neuron;​ A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts  ­Cell body; ​ Life support center of the neuron. Contains the nucleus­  metabolic and reproductive functions for the cell. DNA stored here.  ­Dendrites;​ receive messages from other neurons  ­Terminal Branches of Axon;  ​ ​Releases neurotransmitters  ­Axon;  ​ Long single extension of a neuron, covered with the m ​ yelin  sheath ​to insulate and speed up messages through neurons  *​Process between neurons is a chemical process    ­A neural impulse;​ A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is  generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in  the axon’s membrane  Threshold;  ​ Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many  neurons. When the excitatory signal minus the inhibitory signals exceed a  minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential  ­All or None Response;  ​ Once it reaches the threshold, the action  potential will fire. A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and  to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potential strength of  speed  ­Intensity of an ​ action potential r​ emains the same throughout the length  of an axon  ­Synapse;  ​ A junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the  dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.  This tiny gap is called the  ​ synaptic gap or c ​ left  ­Neurotransmitters;  ​ (chemical) Released from the sending neuron travel  across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving  neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential  ­Reuptake;  ​ Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the  sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies  the brakes on neurotransmitter action    How Neurotransmitters Influence Us?  ­Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation  ­Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases such as schizophrenia    Gila Cells  ​ ­Cells that​ provide support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system  ­Keeps neurons in their proper places  ­Destroy and eliminate dead neurons and then often replace those neurons  ­Help make sure neurons signals are not mixing    Kinds of Neurons  ­Sensory Neuron  ​ carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the  CNS.  Motor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands.  Interneurons connect the two neurons    ​ ​ Nervous System;​ (Central and Peripheral nervous systems) Consists of all the nerve cells.  It is  the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system.  ­Central Nervous System; ​Brain and the Spinal cord> network formed in the brain  ­Peripheral Nervous System;​ ​Sensory and and motor neurons that connect the CNS to  the rest of the body>>​ Somatic and Autonomic systems  ­Somatic Nervous Systems;  ​ ​The division of PNS that controls the  body’s skeletal muscles (voluntary muscle movement)  ­​Autonomic Nervous System;  ​ Part of the PNS that controls the glands  and other muscles  ­Sympathetic Nervous System;  the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations (fight or flight)  Fight or Flight is instinct to flee a situation or to fight in a  stressful situation.  It’s a natural instinct that mostly isn’t  voluntary  ​ ­Parasympathetic Nervous System;  calms the body, conserving its energy (rest and digest)      ­The Nerves;​ ​Nerves consist of neural cables containing many axons. They are party of  the peripheral nervous system and connect muscles, glands and sense organs to the  central nervous system.    ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​     Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT/CT)  ­Locates abnormalities in structure or shape of brain  ­X­Ray providing cross section of the body 


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