Psychology 101 Chapter 1 Notes
Psychology 101 Chapter 1 Notes 101
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Introduction to Psychological Science
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexus Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Filter, Kevin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychological Science in Psychology (PSYC) at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
8/22/16 Chapter 1: The Science of Psyc Defining and Exploring Roots: ● Scientific study of behavior and mental processes use of systematic method, natural world, and draw conclusions ● Behavior: directly observed (ex. Note taking) ● Mental processes: thoughts, feelings, and motives (ex. wishes) Attitudes of Scientific Approach: psychological frame of mind ● Critical thinking ● Curiousity questions ● Scepticism ● Objectivity things as they are History: ● Wilhelm Wundt (18321920) father of psyc actions, imagery, etc. structuralism identifies elements or structures of mental processes introspection (looking inside) ● William James (18421910) philosopher functionalism identifies purposes or functions of mind ● Charles Darwin (18091882) Natural selection: evolutionary process which organisms are best adapted to environment adaptive and functional characteristics become dominant darwin looked deep into biology 7 Approaches: ● Biological Approach focus on the brain and nervous system neuroscience: structure, function, development, genetics, and biochem of nervous system ● Behavioral Approach Emphasis on observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants Behaviorists: John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner rewards/punishments determine our behavior ● Psychodynamic Approach Emphasis on unconscious thought, conflict between biological drives, society demands, and early childhood family experience founding father: Sigmund Freud ● Humanistic Approach Emphasis on positive qualities, the capacity for personal growth, and the freedom to choose one's destiny humanistic psychologists: Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow ● Cognitive Approach Emphasis on mental processes involved in knowing and how we: direct attention, perceive, remember, think, solve problems ● Evolutionary Approach Use of ideas such as: adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection used as a basis for specific human behavior (ex. Why men and women have different roles in society) ● Sociocultural Approach Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior focus on comparisons of behavior across: countries and diversity between groups within a country Specialization in Psyc: ● Psyc: meeting organizations/businesses; better markets school psych: needs within a school; student behavior sports psych: mental integrity in performance activity forensic psych: crime and law enforcement clinical psych: like counseling; more research Steps in the Scientific Method: ● Observation phenomena in the world ● Formulate hypothesis develop testable prediction from theory ● Conduct research test through collected data and analyze ● Draw conclusions do the results support hypothesis ● Evaluate results Types of Psyc Research: ● Description research = reveal info. about behavior/attitude ● Correlational research = discovering relationships between variables ● Experimental research = establishing cause of relationships Descriptive: ● Observation, survey or interview, case study without answering why or how Correlational: ● Examine how and whether 2 variables change together correlation doesn’t equal causation ex. Ice cream consumption leads to violence (false) third variable problem Experimental: ● Determining whether causal relationships exist between variables ● Random assignment helps establish causation independent variables = manipulated dependent variables = changed experimental = receive treatment control = baseline (no change) Validity: ● External whether an experimental design is representative of real world issues ● Internal whether changes in the dependent variable are actually due to the manipulation of the independent variable Ethical Research: ● Research particles have certain rights human participants animal research ● Institutional review board (IRB) risks ● APA ethics guidelines confidentiality
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