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Psychology 101 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Alexus Notetaker

Psychology 101 Chapter 1 Notes 101

Alexus Notetaker
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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About this Document

Notes from slides and add on's from instructor in lecture.
Introduction to Psychological Science
Filter, Kevin
Class Notes
Psychology, Chapter




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexus Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Filter, Kevin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychological Science in Psychology (PSYC) at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

Similar to 101 at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


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Date Created: 09/14/16
8/22/16 Chapter 1: The Science of Psyc Defining and Exploring Roots:  ● Scientific study of behavior and mental processes  ­use of systematic method, natural world, and draw conclusions  ● Behavior: directly observed (ex. Note taking)  ● Mental processes: thoughts, feelings, and motives (ex. wishes)  Attitudes of Scientific Approach: psychological frame of mind  ● Critical thinking  ● Curiousity  ­questions  ● Scepticism  ● Objectivity  ­things as they are  History:  ● Wilhelm Wundt (1832­1920)  ­father of psyc  ­actions, imagery, etc.  ­structuralism  ­identifies elements or structures of mental processes  ­introspection (looking inside)  ● William James (1842­1910)  ­philosopher  ­functionalism  ­identifies purposes or functions of mind  ● Charles Darwin (1809­1882) ­Natural selection: evolutionary process which organisms are best adapted to environment  ­adaptive and functional  ­characteristics become dominant  ­darwin looked deep into biology  7 Approaches:  ● Biological Approach  ­focus on the brain and nervous system  ­neuroscience: structure, function, development, genetics, and biochem of nervous system  ● Behavioral Approach ­Emphasis on observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants  ­Behaviorists: John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner  ­rewards/punishments determine our behavior  ● Psychodynamic Approach  ­Emphasis on unconscious thought, conflict between biological drives, society demands, and  early childhood family experience  ­founding father: Sigmund Freud  ● Humanistic Approach  ­Emphasis on positive qualities, the capacity for personal growth, and the freedom to choose  one's destiny  ­humanistic psychologists: Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow  ● Cognitive Approach  ­Emphasis on mental processes involved in knowing and how we: direct attention, perceive,  remember, think, solve problems  ● Evolutionary Approach  ­Use of ideas such as: adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection  ­used as a basis for specific human behavior (ex. Why men and women have different roles in  society)  ● Sociocultural Approach  ­Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior  ­focus on comparisons of behavior across: countries and diversity between groups within a  country  Specialization in Psyc:  ● Psyc: meeting organizations/businesses; better markets  ­school psych: needs  within a school; student behavior  ­sports psych: mental integrity in performance activity  ­forensic psych: crime and law enforcement  ­clinical psych: like counseling; more research  Steps in the Scientific Method:  ● Observation  ­phenomena in the world  ● Formulate hypothesis ­develop testable prediction from theory  ● Conduct research  ­test through collected data and analyze ● Draw conclusions ­do the results support hypothesis  ● Evaluate results  Types of Psyc Research:  ● Description research = reveal info. about behavior/attitude ● Correlational research = discovering relationships between variables  ● Experimental research = establishing cause of relationships  Descriptive:  ● Observation, survey or interview, case study  ­without answering why or how  Correlational:  ● Examine how and whether 2 variables change together  ­correlation doesn’t equal causation  ­ex. Ice cream consumption leads to violence (false)  ­third variable problem  Experimental:  ● Determining whether causal relationships exist between variables  ● Random assignment helps establish causation  ­independent variables = manipulated  ­dependent variables = changed  ­experimental = receive treatment  ­control = baseline (no change)  Validity:  ● External  ­whether an experimental design is representative of real world issues  ● Internal  ­whether changes in the dependent variable are actually due to the manipulation of the  independent variable  Ethical Research:  ● Research particles have certain rights  ­human participants  ­animal research  ● Institutional review board (IRB)  ­risks  ● APA ethics guidelines  ­confidentiality 


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