New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Psych Week 3

by: Becca Petersen

General Psych Week 3 PSY2012-16Fall 0002

Becca Petersen
University of Central Florida

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the lecture notes from general psych week 3 covering the last part of chapter two as well as chapter 3. They do not include material from the book but are strictly based on the informati...
General Psychology
Dr. Alisha Janowsky
Class Notes
general, Pysch, Psychology
25 ?




Popular in General Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.

Similar to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


Reviews for General Psych Week 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/14/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 General Psychology Dr. Alisha Janowsky States of Consciousness; Chapter 3:   -­‐Waking  consciousness,  sleep,  dreams,  hypnosis,  and  drugs     Consciousness  –  awareness  of  our  environment  and  ourselves         Breakdown:       External  vs.  internal     External  –  which  the  car  in  front  of  you  just  swerved     Internal  –  that  you  have  a  headache         Directed  vs.  Flowing  consciousness                 Directed  –  focused  on  a  specific  task           Flowing  –  just  moving  from  one  idea  to  the  next     Divided  consciousness       Multitasking  –  focusing  on  numerous  things  at  the  same  time       Selective  attention       Trying  to  focus  on  a  particular  object     Inattentional  blindness  –         Failing  to  see  visual  objects  when  your  attention  is  directed  elsewhere       Higher-­‐level  consciousness       Actively  focus  efforts  on  obtaining  a  goal  (studying)  -­‐  directed     Lower  level  awareness-­‐     Requires  little  attention  (sing  abc’s)  –  flowing       Automatic  processing     (Allows  divided  attention)     Daydreaming       Usually  very  spontaneous  –  usually  happens  when  you’re  bored.    When  something   doesn’t  require  your  full  attention  –  this  could  be  anything  form  making  plans  to   practicing  something  etc.     Altered States of Consciousness :   Noticeably  different  states     Hypnosis     Drinking   Drugs     Biological  rhythms  of  sleep       Circadian  Rhythm-­‐  cycle  of  activity  lasting  24  hours  –  all  of  us  have  different  places  in  our   cycle  where  we  are  most  awake,  most  aware,  most  tired     Our  biological  clocks  can  get  thrown  off  by  a  lot  of  things  –  travel,  jetlag,  day  light  savings   etc.     Things  that  trigger  circadian  rhythm  –         Bright  lights  –  superchiasmatic  nucleus  (SCN)  and  melatonin     EEG’s  of  the  brain  throughout  a  sleep  cycle  –  5  different  stages  of  sleep  –  the  way  you  go   through  them  impacts  the  quality  of  your  sleep       1.    Stage  one  sleep  –   Relaxed  state  of  dream-­‐like  awareness  between  awake  and  sleep   Muscles  sometimes  suddenly  tense  up  because  you  feel  like  you’re  falling  –  hypnogotic   sleep     2.  Characterized  by  periodic  appearance  of  sleep  spindles       3  and  4  slow  –  wave  sleep  –  not  typically  dreaming  in  these  states     REM  Sleep  –  is  that  5  stage  –  you  start  coming  back  up  again  so  it  is  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  4,  3,  2….   Paradoxical  sleep  –  our  body  sort  of  protects  us  from  waking  so  that  when  we  dream  of   French  toast  we  don’t  suddenly  get  up  to  go  make  it  –  a  lot  of  brain  activity  going  on  at  this   point     We  dream  4-­‐6  times  every  night       One  sleep  cycle  is  anywhere  from  90-­‐100  minutes       Dream Content:     Freud  was  a  big  believer  that  dreaming  was  a  window  into  the  unconscious  mind   2  types  of  content     1. Manifest  content  –  story  line  of  a  dream   2. Latent  content  –  what  that  dream  meant  –  he  also  felt  it  was  kind  of  a  wish   fulfillment       Information  processing  –  sort  out  the  days  events  and  consolidate  memories     Physiological  perspective  –  dreaming  is  just  a  way  to  preserve  neural  pathways     Activation  synthesis  theory  –  brain’s  attempt  to  make  sense  of  random  neural  activity   Cognition-­‐  knowledge  and  understanding       Not Enough Sleep: Teens  need  about  9  hours  of  sleep  but  only  get  around  7     Effects:   Immune  system  suppression     After  metabolic  rate  and  hormone  function   Hand  tremors   Irritability     Decreased  performance     Long  periods  of  not  getting  enough  sleep  –  results  in  accumulated  sleep  debt  and  just   sleeping  in  on  Saturday  will  not  correct  that.         We  sleep  for…     Protection!    Evolutionarily  speaking,  it’s  much  better  to  hunt  and  do  our  stuff  during   the  day  when  we  can  actually  see     Recuperation  –  our  body  heals  itself  while  we  sleep       Memory  improvement  –  storage  and  maintenance  of  long-­‐term  memory  is  linked  to   how  many  rem  cycles  we  go  through  in  a  night     Sleep Disorders:     Insomnia  –  problems  falling  or  staying  asleep     Narcolepsy    -­‐  uncontrollable  sleep  attacks  –  you  could  be  doing  just  about  anything  and   suddenly  fall  asleep  –  throws  you  into  a  rem  cycle     Sleep  apnea  –  temporary  cessations  of  breathing  and  awakenings  during  sleep  –  sounds   like  snoring  but  its  really  just  that  the  person  temporarily  stops  breathing  and  then  gasping   for  air     Night  terrors  –  high  arousal  and  an  appearance  of  being  terrified  in  the  middle  of  the  night   –  when  someone  just  wakes  up  out  of  no  where  –  not  a  nightmare  and  not  due  to  scary   images  in  your  head  –  most  common  in  5-­‐7  year  olds     Nightmares  –  frightening  images  that  occur  during  a  rem  cycle       Sleep  walking   Sleep  talking       Hypnosis: Hypnosis  –  condition  of  susceptibility  occurring  in  the  context  of  the  hypnotist  –  subject   relationship     Things  that  it  is  actually  successful  in  doing  –    Only  about  10  -­‐20  %  of  the  population  can  actually  be  hypnotized.         If  you  can  sit  down  and  read  a  book  or  watch  TV  and  just  be  completely  immersed  in   it  you  are  more  likely  to  be  hypnotized.       Dividing  your  consciousness  –         They  can  test  this  by  having  the  subjects  stick  their  hand  in  ice  water  to  test  for  pain.    They   will  be  asked  if  they  feel  pain  and  if  so,  to  hit  a  button  with  they’re  other  hand.    They  will   verbally  respond  that  they  are  not  experiencing  any  pain  but  the  other  hand  will  be  going   crazy  hitting  the  button     Age  regression     Eye  witness  memory  –  if  police  officer  uses  that  as  a  technique  or  info,  they  cant  use  that  to   convict     Overcoming  bad  habits  –  hard  to  determine  if  it  is  actually  working  or  if  it’s  just  a  placebo   effect  but  for  example,  it  is  said  to  help  some  people  stop  smoking     It  Cannot….   It  can’t  be  used  to  improve  memory     Give  special  strengths   Convince  people  to  do  something  they  otherwise  wouldn’t     Stage  hypnosis  is  much  different  than  this^         Psychoactive Drugs:       Chemical  substance  that  alters  perception  and  mood     3  classes:   1.  Depressants   2.  Stimulants   3.  Hallucinogens     Drug  dependence:     Tolerance     Taking  larger  and  larger  doses  of  a  drug  in  order  to  achieve  that  same  effect       Physical  –  when  you  have  physical  effects  from  not  taking  the  drug       Psychological  –  feelings  of  cravings,  feeling  like  you  need  to  do  something   Withdrawal  –     How  strong  the  withdrawal  is  can  really  impact  addiction   Discomfort  and  distress  with  discontinued  drug  use     Faster  the  euphoria  in  your  system  wanes,  the  more  likely  it  is  that  you  will  want  to   take  larger  and  larger  doses  to  achieve  that  same  high  –  the  strong  high  happens  very   quickly  but  t  also  dissipates  very  quickly     Biological  factors  –  what  are  your  genetics?  Do  you  have  a  parent  that  has  problem   with  addiction?       Psychological  factors    -­‐are  you  feeling  depressed,  lonely?         Social  factors  –  what  are  the  social  norms  about  acceptability  –  is  it  okay  to  get   drunk  on  a  Saturday  night  rather  than  9am  on  Wednesday??         1.    Depressants     Alcohol   Relaxation  –  depresses  that  part  of  your  brain  that  makes  you  think  something  may  not  be   the  best  idea     Masked  as  a  depressant  because  it  carries  the  reputation  that  it  loosens  you  up     Barbiturates   Tranquilizers   Reduce  anxiety  by  impairing  memory  and  judgment     Date  rape  drugs     Opiates  –     Considers  a  depressant  because  of  the  crashing  low  that  comes  with  using  it   Euphoria     Dopamine,  heroin     2.    Stimulants  –     Active  motivational  centers  of  the  CNS  yielding  alertness,  excitement,  and  energy     Caffeine  –  the  best  example     Does  not  counteract  the  results  of  alcohol   In  moderate  doses  –  it  increases  alertness   Can  cause  physical  dependence  –  withdrawal  –  fatigue,  muscle  pain,  and  headaches     Nicotine  –   It  can  either  be  stimulating  or  relaxing     Increases  blood  pressure  and  heart  rate,  faster  respiration  –  it  impacts  attention  and   alertness  –  when  people  quit  they  can  have  increased  appetite,  headaches,  problems   with  alertness,  cravings,  etc.     Amphetamines  –   Anything  from  speed  to  rydolin     Many  effects  of  these  are  similar  to  the  effects  of  cocaine  –  long  term  insomnia,   restlessness,  paranoia,  weight  loss,  tremors,  depression,  etc.   Used  to  be  used  as  a  wieght  loss  drug   Rydolin  used  for  ADD  or  ADHD     Cocaine  –     Comes  from  cocoa  plants  -­‐     Crack  cocaine  became  very  popular  in  the  80’s  –  it  blocks  part  of  the  brain  and   makes  you  very  happy  –  usually  snorted     Overdoes  –  can  result  in  bleeding  in  the  brain,  stroke,  stop  breathing  etc.     Crack  –     Chips  of  pure  cocaine  that  are  usually  smoked  –  makes  that  high  faster  and  more   intense       Ecstasy  –  used  as  an  appetite  suppressant     In  the  70’s  it  was  given  to  psychotherapy  sessions  to  allow  people  to  open  up  until  they   realized  too  much  can  lead  to  brain  damage     Very  popular  at  raves   Lower  doses  –  increase  awareness,  energy,  and  happiness     Too  much  can  be  toxic  to  your  brain     3.    Hallucinogens  –   The  drugs  you  take  that  give  you  this  euphoric  sense  of  sensory  awareness,  time   distortion,  and  mystical  experiences       LSD  -­‐First  synthesized  from  something  that  grows  on  grains   Water-­‐soluble,  tasteless,  odorless  –  the  effects  seem  to  depend  on  your  mood  when  you  try   it     LSD  –  people  who  have  taken  lsd  years  and  years  and  years  ago  can  still  have  flashbacks  to   it   Really  popular  in  the  70’s     Tolerance  for  it  develops  pretty  quickly     Mushrooms  –psilocybin  –  works  in  a  very  similar  way       Marijuana  –  active  ingredient  is  THC   Involved  in  places  involved  in  memory  –     Relaxed  reduced  coordination,  sleepiness   High  doses  can  cause  stronger    Hallucinations     ON  THE  TEST:     50  points,  52  questions  (2  extra  credit)     Raw  score  is  posted,  not  a  percent     Things  to  know….     1. The  scientific  method   2. What  psych  is   3. Some  of  the  key  players  we  talked  about  (functionalism,  psychoanalysis,  Freud,  etc.)   4. Main  subfields  today   5. How  we  divide  up  those  areas  –  basic  research  areas,  applied  research  areas,   professional  areas,  etc.  how  a  clinical  psychologist  is  different  from  a  counseling   psychologist   6. Chapter  1  –  different  research  methods  –  hindsight  bias,  overconfidence,   confirmation  bias   7. Different  kinds  of  descriptive  studies  –  case  studies,  surveys,  naturalistic   observation   8. Correlation  –  difference  between  positive  and  negative  correlation  –  problems  with   correlation  research   9. Experiments  –  what  they  can  do  for  us,  different  parts  of  the  experiment  –   independent  vs.  dependent,  control  groups  placebo   10.Operational  definition  of  variables   11.Ethical  concerns  in  research   12.The  brain  –  the  neuron  and  all  different  parts     13.How  an  action  potential  works   14.Some  of  the  different  neurotransmitters  we  have  been  talking  about  –  serotonin  etc.,   15.Agonist  vs.  antagonist   16.Nervous  system  –  peripheral  and  central   17.Central  nervous  system  and  in  particular,  the  brain  –     18.An  parts  of  the  brain  discussed  in  class  are  fair  game  -­‐  not  just  what  they  do  but   what  happens  when  different  parts  of  the  brain  are  damages   19.Imaging  –  how  we  look  at  the  brain  –  we  didn’t  talk  about  this  in  class  but  the  book   covers  it  so  read  it!!!!     20.Plasticity  and  lateralization  and  statistical  significance     21.Chapter  3;  consciousness,  what  it  is   22.Different  levels  of  consciousness,  direct,  indirect,  divided  consciousness,   inattentional  blindness,  day  dreaming  etc.   23.Sleep  –  why  we  need  to  sleep,  the  stages  of  sleep  and  how  that  works  in  a  given   night   24.Rem  and  why  we  dream  and  the  different  theories  of  dreaming   25.Different  sleep  disorders   26.Hypnosis  –  what  it  can  and  can  not  do     27.Addiction;  tolerance  and  withdrawal   28.Different  classes  of  drugs  –  going  to  be  a  “one  of  these  things  is  not  like  the  other”   sort  of  questions   29.    


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.