General Psych Week 3
General Psych Week 3 PSY2012-16Fall 0002
University of Central Florida
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 General Psychology Dr. Alisha Janowsky States of Consciousness; Chapter 3: -‐Waking consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and drugs Consciousness – awareness of our environment and ourselves Breakdown: External vs. internal External – which the car in front of you just swerved Internal – that you have a headache Directed vs. Flowing consciousness Directed – focused on a specific task Flowing – just moving from one idea to the next Divided consciousness Multitasking – focusing on numerous things at the same time Selective attention Trying to focus on a particular object Inattentional blindness – Failing to see visual objects when your attention is directed elsewhere Higher-‐level consciousness Actively focus efforts on obtaining a goal (studying) -‐ directed Lower level awareness-‐ Requires little attention (sing abc’s) – flowing Automatic processing (Allows divided attention) Daydreaming Usually very spontaneous – usually happens when you’re bored. When something doesn’t require your full attention – this could be anything form making plans to practicing something etc. Altered States of Consciousness : Noticeably different states Hypnosis Drinking Drugs Biological rhythms of sleep Circadian Rhythm-‐ cycle of activity lasting 24 hours – all of us have different places in our cycle where we are most awake, most aware, most tired Our biological clocks can get thrown off by a lot of things – travel, jetlag, day light savings etc. Things that trigger circadian rhythm – Bright lights – superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and melatonin EEG’s of the brain throughout a sleep cycle – 5 different stages of sleep – the way you go through them impacts the quality of your sleep 1. Stage one sleep – Relaxed state of dream-‐like awareness between awake and sleep Muscles sometimes suddenly tense up because you feel like you’re falling – hypnogotic sleep 2. Characterized by periodic appearance of sleep spindles 3 and 4 slow – wave sleep – not typically dreaming in these states REM Sleep – is that 5 stage – you start coming back up again so it is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 4, 3, 2…. Paradoxical sleep – our body sort of protects us from waking so that when we dream of French toast we don’t suddenly get up to go make it – a lot of brain activity going on at this point We dream 4-‐6 times every night One sleep cycle is anywhere from 90-‐100 minutes Dream Content: Freud was a big believer that dreaming was a window into the unconscious mind 2 types of content 1. Manifest content – story line of a dream 2. Latent content – what that dream meant – he also felt it was kind of a wish fulfillment Information processing – sort out the days events and consolidate memories Physiological perspective – dreaming is just a way to preserve neural pathways Activation synthesis theory – brain’s attempt to make sense of random neural activity Cognition-‐ knowledge and understanding Not Enough Sleep: Teens need about 9 hours of sleep but only get around 7 Effects: Immune system suppression After metabolic rate and hormone function Hand tremors Irritability Decreased performance Long periods of not getting enough sleep – results in accumulated sleep debt and just sleeping in on Saturday will not correct that. We sleep for… Protection! Evolutionarily speaking, it’s much better to hunt and do our stuff during the day when we can actually see Recuperation – our body heals itself while we sleep Memory improvement – storage and maintenance of long-‐term memory is linked to how many rem cycles we go through in a night Sleep Disorders: Insomnia – problems falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy -‐ uncontrollable sleep attacks – you could be doing just about anything and suddenly fall asleep – throws you into a rem cycle Sleep apnea – temporary cessations of breathing and awakenings during sleep – sounds like snoring but its really just that the person temporarily stops breathing and then gasping for air Night terrors – high arousal and an appearance of being terrified in the middle of the night – when someone just wakes up out of no where – not a nightmare and not due to scary images in your head – most common in 5-‐7 year olds Nightmares – frightening images that occur during a rem cycle Sleep walking Sleep talking Hypnosis: Hypnosis – condition of susceptibility occurring in the context of the hypnotist – subject relationship Things that it is actually successful in doing – Only about 10 -‐20 % of the population can actually be hypnotized. If you can sit down and read a book or watch TV and just be completely immersed in it you are more likely to be hypnotized. Dividing your consciousness – They can test this by having the subjects stick their hand in ice water to test for pain. They will be asked if they feel pain and if so, to hit a button with they’re other hand. They will verbally respond that they are not experiencing any pain but the other hand will be going crazy hitting the button Age regression Eye witness memory – if police officer uses that as a technique or info, they cant use that to convict Overcoming bad habits – hard to determine if it is actually working or if it’s just a placebo effect but for example, it is said to help some people stop smoking It Cannot…. It can’t be used to improve memory Give special strengths Convince people to do something they otherwise wouldn’t Stage hypnosis is much different than this^ Psychoactive Drugs: Chemical substance that alters perception and mood 3 classes: 1. Depressants 2. Stimulants 3. Hallucinogens Drug dependence: Tolerance Taking larger and larger doses of a drug in order to achieve that same effect Physical – when you have physical effects from not taking the drug Psychological – feelings of cravings, feeling like you need to do something Withdrawal – How strong the withdrawal is can really impact addiction Discomfort and distress with discontinued drug use Faster the euphoria in your system wanes, the more likely it is that you will want to take larger and larger doses to achieve that same high – the strong high happens very quickly but t also dissipates very quickly Biological factors – what are your genetics? Do you have a parent that has problem with addiction? Psychological factors -‐are you feeling depressed, lonely? Social factors – what are the social norms about acceptability – is it okay to get drunk on a Saturday night rather than 9am on Wednesday?? 1. Depressants Alcohol Relaxation – depresses that part of your brain that makes you think something may not be the best idea Masked as a depressant because it carries the reputation that it loosens you up Barbiturates Tranquilizers Reduce anxiety by impairing memory and judgment Date rape drugs Opiates – Considers a depressant because of the crashing low that comes with using it Euphoria Dopamine, heroin 2. Stimulants – Active motivational centers of the CNS yielding alertness, excitement, and energy Caffeine – the best example Does not counteract the results of alcohol In moderate doses – it increases alertness Can cause physical dependence – withdrawal – fatigue, muscle pain, and headaches Nicotine – It can either be stimulating or relaxing Increases blood pressure and heart rate, faster respiration – it impacts attention and alertness – when people quit they can have increased appetite, headaches, problems with alertness, cravings, etc. Amphetamines – Anything from speed to rydolin Many effects of these are similar to the effects of cocaine – long term insomnia, restlessness, paranoia, weight loss, tremors, depression, etc. Used to be used as a wieght loss drug Rydolin used for ADD or ADHD Cocaine – Comes from cocoa plants -‐ Crack cocaine became very popular in the 80’s – it blocks part of the brain and makes you very happy – usually snorted Overdoes – can result in bleeding in the brain, stroke, stop breathing etc. Crack – Chips of pure cocaine that are usually smoked – makes that high faster and more intense Ecstasy – used as an appetite suppressant In the 70’s it was given to psychotherapy sessions to allow people to open up until they realized too much can lead to brain damage Very popular at raves Lower doses – increase awareness, energy, and happiness Too much can be toxic to your brain 3. Hallucinogens – The drugs you take that give you this euphoric sense of sensory awareness, time distortion, and mystical experiences LSD -‐First synthesized from something that grows on grains Water-‐soluble, tasteless, odorless – the effects seem to depend on your mood when you try it LSD – people who have taken lsd years and years and years ago can still have flashbacks to it Really popular in the 70’s Tolerance for it develops pretty quickly Mushrooms –psilocybin – works in a very similar way Marijuana – active ingredient is THC Involved in places involved in memory – Relaxed reduced coordination, sleepiness High doses can cause stronger Hallucinations ON THE TEST: 50 points, 52 questions (2 extra credit) Raw score is posted, not a percent Things to know…. 1. The scientific method 2. What psych is 3. Some of the key players we talked about (functionalism, psychoanalysis, Freud, etc.) 4. Main subfields today 5. How we divide up those areas – basic research areas, applied research areas, professional areas, etc. how a clinical psychologist is different from a counseling psychologist 6. Chapter 1 – different research methods – hindsight bias, overconfidence, confirmation bias 7. Different kinds of descriptive studies – case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation 8. Correlation – difference between positive and negative correlation – problems with correlation research 9. Experiments – what they can do for us, different parts of the experiment – independent vs. dependent, control groups placebo 10.Operational definition of variables 11.Ethical concerns in research 12.The brain – the neuron and all different parts 13.How an action potential works 14.Some of the different neurotransmitters we have been talking about – serotonin etc., 15.Agonist vs. antagonist 16.Nervous system – peripheral and central 17.Central nervous system and in particular, the brain – 18.An parts of the brain discussed in class are fair game -‐ not just what they do but what happens when different parts of the brain are damages 19.Imaging – how we look at the brain – we didn’t talk about this in class but the book covers it so read it!!!! 20.Plasticity and lateralization and statistical significance 21.Chapter 3; consciousness, what it is 22.Different levels of consciousness, direct, indirect, divided consciousness, inattentional blindness, day dreaming etc. 23.Sleep – why we need to sleep, the stages of sleep and how that works in a given night 24.Rem and why we dream and the different theories of dreaming 25.Different sleep disorders 26.Hypnosis – what it can and can not do 27.Addiction; tolerance and withdrawal 28.Different classes of drugs – going to be a “one of these things is not like the other” sort of questions 29.
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