Federalism - Weeks 2&3 - POLS 2312
Federalism - Weeks 2&3 - POLS 2312 POLS 2312-006
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sera on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 2312-006 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Daniel D Sledge in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see State & Local Government in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Note taker: Sera POLS-2312 Federalism Federalism is a principle of government based on separation of powers between the national and sub-national governments Checks and balances are in place to counter balance different branches of government o Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government Types of Federalism Dual Federalism (Layer cake federalism) o Vision of the Constitution in which the federal government and the state governments inhabit separate spheres o Those who support this type of federalism love the 10 amendment because it limits some national powers Cooperative Federalism (Marble cake federalism) o Vision of federalism in which the federal government, states, and localities share responsibilities o Emphasis on the Supremacy clause with this form of federalism Benefits of Federalism It works against the concentration of powers States are the “laboratories of democracy,” they experiment with new policies States and localities are potentially more responsive to local needs Allows for more flexibility Federalism ensures divergent results across jurisdictions Federalism and Race States had authority over the institution of slavery Many debates about federalism and national power have revolved around race Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury during Washington’s presidency Advocated for national assumption of every state’s debt; funding of existing public debt Creation of national bank Excise tax on alcohol Tariff on imports Democratic-Republicans Support for this party was centered in the West and the South The party envisioned an agrarian republic with individual liberty grounded in land ownership and responsive local government Secretary of State to Washington, Thomas Jefferson, supported this party Note taker: Sera POLS-2312 The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions In 1798, the Alien & Sedition Acts were passed under the administration of John Adams during a quasi-war with the French o The Alien act increased made it harder to become a US citizen, gave new powers to the government to deport foreigners, and made it harder for immigrants to vote o The Sedition Acts were used to convict men who spoke out against the government, usually Democratic-Republican newspaper editors Kentucky and Virginia passed bills to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts These resolutions suggested that when the federal government exceeded its authority, the states could nullify its acts The Nullification Crisis (1828) John Calhoun argued that the federal government was a creation of the states, which were the final arbiters of the constitutionality of laws Tariff of Abominations (1828) and Compromise Tariff (1832) – hurt rural communities and caused much strife among the south In November 1832, a Nullification Convention met in South Carolina and declare the two tariffs unconstitutional and unenforceable in the state In 1833, a new Compromise Tariff was drafted thanks to Henry Clay who brokered a compromise bill with Calhoun to lower the tariffs over the next decade Civil War Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1960 o States began to secede from the union almost immediately Civil War was fought from 1861-1865 – Union victory “Civil War amendments” o 13 (1865): Outlawed slavery th o 14 (1868): Created a national citizenship o 15 (1870): National right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” – not sex The New Deal 1933: Stock market crashes, sends country into the Great Depression FDR passes laws that make the national government stronger The “Great Society” – domestic programs launched by the Johnson administration to eliminate poverty and racial in justice Grants-in-aid: programs through which Congress provides money to states and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes chosen by the federal government
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