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Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe, pg 1-4 and 70-75 Summary

by: Maddison Nichol

Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe, pg 1-4 and 70-75 Summary HIST 3380

Marketplace > York University > History > HIST 3380 > Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe pg 1 4 and 70 75 Summary
Maddison Nichol

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A summary of the assigned pages from the Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe from weeks 1 and 2. Includes the geographic regions of Eastern Europe, the partitioning of Poland, the Austrian-Ottoman-...
Eastern Europe, 1772-1918
K. Weiser
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddison Nichol on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3380 at York University taught by K. Weiser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Eastern Europe, 1772-1918 in History at York University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Historical Atlas of Central Europe, pg. 2-4: - Eastern Europe can be subdivided into three geographic zones: o The Northern Zone  Bound by the Baltic Sea in the north, and the crests of the Ore, Sudeten, and Carpathian mountains in the south  Coincides with medieval Slavic marchlands east of the Elbe River  Contained historical powers such as Prussia, Saxony, and Poland-Lithuania  Today, contains Eastern Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine (west of the Dnieper River) and Moldavia o The Alpine-Carpathian Zone  Bounded in the north by the boundaries of Austria, the mountain ranges that surround the Bohemian Basin, the Carpathians, and the Prut river  Ends in the south at the Sava-Danube river line, the Kupa River in the West and the Black Sea at the mouth of the Danube River  Coincides with the historical Habsburg Empire and the principalities of Moldavia and Walachia  Today, contains Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Slovenia, northern Croatia, and northeast Italy o The Balkan Zone  Begins south of the Sava-Danube rivers and extends to the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas  Referred to as the Balkan Peninsula  From the Turkish word balak, meaning mountain  Historically was the European extent of the Ottoman Empire  Today contains southern Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, and European Turkey (Istanbul)  Very mountainous - Two-Thirds of this region has a continental climate - The Balkan Zone has a Mediterranean Climate - Many of the rivers are navigable with the help of canals o Allows for trade with the seas surrounding Europe  Black Sea, Mediterranean, Baltic Sea, etc. Historical Atlas of Central Europe, pg. 70-75: - Poland survived both the era of civil war and foreign wars in the second half of the seventeenth century and the Great Northern War (1700-1709) o Was very weakened politically  Polish politics were decided by neighbouring Russia - Following the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), the Polish kings Augustus III and Stanislaw Poniatowski could do little without Russia’s approval o Lead to the Confederation of the Bar, an anti-Russian and pro-Polish movement  Movement was put down by Tsarist troops from Russia, not Poland - Following Russia’s victory over the Ottomans in 1772, Austria nearly declared war on Russia o Fredrick of Prussia proposed to divide Poland between the three nations of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, so Russia would not take territory Austria would be against them taking  Russia gained 93,000 square km  Prussia gained 36,000 square km  Austria gained 81,900 square km - In response to this partitioning, Poland created a new constitution that gave more power to what was to become a hereditary monarchy - The second partition was in 1793 between Prussia and Russia after both nations invaded Poland and defeated them o Russia gained 250,000 square km o Prussia gained 57,100 square km - A national uprising began in Poland in 1794 o Several major battles with Russia and Prussia that led to the final partition of Poland between the two and the non-combatant Austria to maintain a balance  Russia gained 120,000 square km  Prussia gained 48,000 square km  Austria gained 47,000 square km - As a result, Poland disappeared from the map of Europe - Total land acquired from the partitions: o Russia, 463,200 square km o Prussia, 141,400 square km o Austria, 128,900 square km - Russia, Austria and the Ottomans fought continuously in the Balkan region o Russia and Austria did not trust each other and failed to coordinate well, giving the Ottomans the upper hand - Following Ottoman victory over Austria and Russia in the war of 1736-39, the Ottomans gained northern Bosnia, northern Serbia, and western Walachia o These borders were to remain on the Austrian-Ottoman side until the end of the century - The final change in borders were between the Russians and the Ottomans in 1787 when the Ottomans ceded Jedisan to Russia in exchange for the Austrian city of Belgrade while the Austrians would gain a small strip of land in northern Bosnia - The Napoleonic wars changed the landscape of Eastern Europe yet again - The treaty of Tilsit-Sovetsk resulted in Prussia losing the lands it had gained in the second and third partition of Poland and the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French dependent state and ruled by the King of Saxony - Prussian territory around the district of Bialystok was ceded to Russia in the Tilsit treaty as well - Duchy of Warsaw nearly doubled in size after Austria’s defeat in 1809 - The smaller German states of the old Holy Roman Empire (HRE) were unified into the Duchy of the Rhine and placed under French dependency - Austrian borders shifted constantly during this time after being defeated thrice by the French army - Austria grabbed lands from Venice but was forced to cede them back after a French victory o December 26, 1805 - France gained holdings in the Balkans after another Austrian defeat and named this the Illyrian Provinces o Carinthia, Croatia south of the Sava River, Istria, and Dalmatia o Lasted from 1809-1813 - France annexed the Ionian islands from Venice o Incorporated into Illyria - Revolution in Serbia drove the Ottomans out and a new Russian-Ottoman war broke out after the short-lived Ottoman-Russian alliance broke down o Serbia wanted to be independent under Russian protection o War ended with no major gains on either side due to an impending French invasion of Russia in 1812 - Russia, Prussia, and Austria defeated the French in 1814 and Napoleon abdicated, and French influence in Eastern Europe disappeared


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