Technical Vocal - PHIL 1010 (Lecture 2)
Technical Vocal - PHIL 1010 (Lecture 2) PHIL1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Tan on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL1010 at University of Toledo taught by Muntersbjorn,M in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Logic-L1 in Philosophy (introduction to logic) at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Technical Vocab – PHIL 1010 Lecture 2 Key: Terms – ___ Topics – ___ Important – ___ What is an argument? o Arguments are statements that represent an inference. o Premises are statements that support a conclusion. What is an inference? o Inferences are thoughts that we believe is true. Inferences can take place conscious or unconsciously. o Inferences are implicit while arguments are explicit. o Implicit thoughts are implied, suggested, or understood but not directly expressed. o Explicit thoughts are usually overly expressed. Sentences & Statements o Sentences are grammatically correct string of words. o Declarative sentences can be either true or false. o Statements are or a part of declarative sentences that may be true or false. o A question or a command is a sentence but not a statement. Kinds of statements o Conjunctions are statements that are connect by words such as “and” or “but”. o Disjunctions are statements connect by the word “or” Statement & Propositions o Propositions are the content of a statement. o Two or more propositions may express the same propositions. Conditional statements o Conditional statements are usually premises or conclusions of arguments. o Conditional statements can’t be arguments by itself. o Some conditional statements represent inferences and may be expressed as arguments if implicit arguments are made explicit. Necessary & Sufficient o Conditional statements can also express relations between necessary and sufficient conditions. If antecedent, then consequent. o Antecedents are sufficient conditions: if the antecedent is true, it guarantees that the consequent is true. o Consequents are necessary conditions: the consequent must be true if antecedent is true. 2 Necessary & Contingent o Necessary events happen no matter what. o Contingent events may or may not happen, depending on the conditions. Deductive & Inductive validity o Deductive reasoning is taking a set of facts and and creating more facts from the fact given. In deductive arguments, if the premises are true, then the conclusion is always true. o Premises can’t deny conclusions without contradictions. o Inductive reasoning is looking for a pattern and then generalizing. Generalizing may or may not be true. In Inductive arguments, if the premises are true, the conclusion is likely but not always true. o The strength of inductive arguments depends on its form and content. Sound & Cogent o A sound argument has a deductively valid structure, a structure that must be true, and true premises. o A cogent argument has an inductively strong structure, a structure that may or may not be true, and true premises. A Priori & A Posteriori 3 o A priori is knowledge that you know prior from experience. o A Posteriori is knowledge you gain through or after experience. Form & Content o Content refers to what an argument, sentence, or passage is about, including topic or subject. o Form refers to the structure of a sentence or argument including the relationship between premises and conclusion. 4
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