US History Chapter 21
US History Chapter 21 HIST 2112 - US History Since Reconstruction of 1878
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Date Created: 09/14/16
US History Since 1877 Chapter 21 The Progressive Era (1890 – 1920) I.The Varied Sources of Progressivism A. Economic Depression and Discontent 1. Estimated 10 million of total 82 million Americans lived in poverty a) Prompted upper-middle class to organize aid B. Populism 1. Roots in rural South and West 2. Prominent in the elections of 1892 and 1896 a) William Jennings Bryan’s loss pretty much ended the party’s political career 3. Progressives carried on some of their ideas C. “Honest Government” 1. Key goal of Progressives a) From the Mugwumps (reformers who fought the patronage system) 2. Expanded beyond political corruption a) Urban issues such as crime b) Access to electricity, running water, city sewer systems, garbage collection, etc. D. Socialism 1. Radical wing of progressivism a) Did not call for government taking control of corporations b) Wanted improved working conditions and the closing of the gap between rich and poor (1) “Progressive” taxation 2. Most progressives were not socialist radicals but capitalist reformers E. Muckraking Journalism 1. Muckrakers a) America’s first investigative journalists (1) Educated upper and middle classes about “how the other half lives” b) Changed the face of journalism c) Helped progressivism achieve popular support F. Religious Activism 1. The Social Gospel a) Emphasis on community service and helping the poor b) YMCA & YWCA (1) Young Men’s/Women’s Christian Associations (2) Provided low cost housing and exercise to young men and women (3) Usually included libraries, classrooms, and kitchens c) The Salvation Army (1) Offered “soup kitchens” to feed poor (2) Day nurseries for the children of working mothers d) Causes (1) Protestants and Catholics thought that Christianity was becoming a middle and upper class thing and was losing its appeal to the poor e) Key Players (1) Washington Gladden: pastor in Springfield, rejected social Darwinism (2) Walter Rauschenbusch: Baptist minister in Hell’s Kitchen neighborhood, wanted to expose the realities of poverty in America f) Main goal: expand the Kingdom of God by following Christ’s example by serving the poor 2. Settlement Houses a) Hull House (1) Established by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr (a) Addams was the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize (2) Addressed everyday needs of the working poor (3) Included a nursery, health clinics, music lessons, art studios, men’s clubs, job training, and a gymnasium b) Leaders realized that they were barely making a dent with settlement houses (1) Decided to try for political reform as well G. The Woman Suffrage Movement 1. 1880-1910: employed women from 2.6 million to 7.8 million a) More women were college-educated b) Men still thought voting would “corrupt their moral purity” 2. National American Woman Suffrage Association a) Combination of two large activist groups 3. Western States granted first a) Women more essential to the harsh life out west b) 1917: New York became the first state east of the Mississippi to concede the right to vote II. Progressives’ Aims and Achievements A. Political Reforms 1. Direct Primary a) All members of a political party vote on the nominee b) Previously: inner circle of party leaders chose the candidates 2. Direct Democracy a) Initiative and Referendum (1) Initiative: citizens could sign petitions to have a proposal put on the ballot (2) Referendum: citizens could then vote on the proposals b) Recall (1) Corrupt or incompetent elected officials could by removed by public petition or vote 3. Seventeenth Amendment a) Provided for the direct election of senators B. The Efficiency Movement 1. Frederick Winslow Taylor a) Nation’s first “efficiency expert” (1) Showed employers how to cut waste and improve productivity b) Wrote The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) (1) Established detailed standards for each job classification, specifying how fast people should work, when they should rest, etc. c) Taylorism (1) Goal: “metal revolution” in management that would… (a) Improve productivity and profits (b) Increase pay for efficient workers (c) Decrease probability of strike 2. Municipal Reform a) Commission System (1) Placed ultimate authority in a board of commissioners (2) Combined both legislative and executive powers in heading city departments (a) Sanitation, police, utilities, etc. b) City-Manager Plan (1) Appointed professional administrator ran a city or county government in accordance with policies set by the elected council and mayor c) Downsides (1) Cities frequently reduced expenses without expanding services 3. The Wisconsin Idea a) Robert M. La Follette (1) Progressive Republican governor of Wisconsin (2) Created nonpartisan state government (a) Legislative Reference Bureau: provided officials with research and advice when drafting legislation C. Social Justice 1. The Campaign Against Drinking a) Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) (1) 300,000 members by 1900 (2) Saw excessive drinking as a threat to social progress and family stability (3) Goals (a) Reduce domestic violence (b) Reduce street crime (c) Remove corruption tool: free beer on election day in an effort to “buy” votes among working class (4) Frances Willard (a) President of WCTU from 1879 to 1898 (b) Organization moved beyond morals to promoting the legal ban on alcohol (c) Also pushed for other reforms important to women b) Anti-Saloon League (1) Self-described as “the Protestant church in action against the saloon” (2) Jubilee Convention (1913) (a) Endorsed amendment to Constitution prohibiting manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages (b) Congress approved in 1917 2. Labor Legislation a) Stats (1) Less than half of all working families relied solely on the husband’s income (2) In 1900, around 1.75 million children ages 10-15 worked outside the home b) Goals (1) Child labor laws (2) Construction of more parks and playgrounds (3) Regulation of women’s workdays (a) Many had children at home or were pregnant c) Triangle Shirtwaist Factory (1) Sweatshop with little ventilation and exits (2) Fire started and 146 young (mostly immigrant) women were trapped on the top floors and died (3) Prompted regulations on fire safety, working conditions, and child labor across the nation d) Supreme Court inconsistency (1) Lochner vs. New York (1905) (a) Ruled that a state law limiting makers to a 60-hour work week was unconstitutional because a worker had the right to accept any job they wanted (2) Muller vs. Oregon (1908) (a) Court approved restricted workday for women (b) Based on evidence that long working hours increased the chances of health problems 3. The “Progressive” Income Tax a) Taxation based on income b) William Howard Taft endorsed a Constitutional amendment (1) The Sixteenth Amendment (1913) (a) Stated that Congress can levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the census III. Progressivism Under Roosevelt and Taft A. Taming Big Business 1. First president to use executive power a) Liked capitalism, disliked corruption b) Endorsed a Square Deal (1) Program featured the “Three Cs” (a) Government control of corporations (b) Enhanced conservation of natural resources (c) Regulations to protect consumers against contaminated foods/meds B. Curbing the Trusts 1. Ordered the breakup of the Northern Securities Company a) Vast network of railroads and steamships in the Pacific Northwest (1) Organized by J. P. Morgan (2) Who promptly marched into Washington (3) And lost a showdown with Roosevelt b) Supreme Court (1) Ruled that the Northern Securities Company was indeed a monopoly (2) Led to more aggressive enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act 2. Approved 25 anti-trust suits against major corporations 3. Sought stronger regulation of railroads 4. Formed the federal Department of Commerce and Labor C. The 1902 Coal Strike 1. 150,000 members of the United Mine Workers walked off the job a) Pennsylvania and West Virginia b) Owners shut down mines instead of negotiating (1) Coal prices sky rocketed (2) Poor had run out of coal for the upcoming winter 2. Roosevelt’s conference a) Invited leaders of both sides to Washington D. C. b) Appealed to their “patriotism” c) Mine owners refused to speak to the UMW leaders d) Threatened to declare a national emergency and send soldiers to run the mines (1) Not really Constitutional but it worked 3. Outcome a) Miners won a 9-hour workday and a 10% wage increase IV. Roosevelt’s Reelection (1904) A. Election 1. Nominations a) Republicans (1) Roosevelt of course b) Democrats (1) Ditched William Jennings Bryan (2) Nominated Alton B. Parker (a) Chief justice of the New York Supreme Court (b) Basically a nobody, very dull and forgettable 2. Outcome a) Republicans and Roosevelt won (1) 7.6 million to 5.1 million (2) 336 to 140 in electoral college b) Worst Democratic defeat in 32 years B. Time in Office 1. Progressive Regulation a) Hepburn Act (1906) (1) Gave the federal Interstate Commerce Commission the power to set maximum freight rates for the railroad industry b) Federal government assumed oversight of key industries (1) Meat packing, food processing, and the making of drugs and medicines c) The Jungle (1906) (1) Novel by Upton Sinclair (2) Exposed the realities of the Chicago meat packing industry (3) Prompted Roosevelt and Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act (1906) (a) Department of Agriculture to inspect every pig or cow that crossed state lines before and after it was slaughtered d) The Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) (1) Required that makers of prepared food and medicine host government inspectors 2. Environmental Conservation a) First president committed to environmental conservation (1) Created fifty federal wildlife refuges (2) Approved five new national parks (3) Designated eighteen national monuments (including the Grand Canyon) b) Gifford Pinchot (1) A friend of Roosevelt’s (2) Nation’s first professionally trained forest manager (a) Head of the Department of Agriculture’s Division of Forestry c) Forest Reserve Act (1891) (1) Protected 172 million acres of federal land from logging (a) Enraged lumber companies but Roosevelt did not back down (2) 234 million acres overall (a) Created 45 national forests in eleven western states 3. Roosevelt and Race a) Biggest failure: did not confront racism b) Made one exception (1) Invited Booker T. Washington to the White House (a) Wanted to discuss presidential appointments in the South (b) This infuriated white southerners (c) Roosevelt caved for once and never invited another prominent African American and made sure to emphasize his southern heritage and admiration of Robert E. Lee 4. The Brownsville Riot a) 1906 racial incident b) African American Army members got into a shootout with whites who had been harassing them outside a saloon (1) One white bartender died, policeman seriously wounded (2) Both side blamed the other for starting it and the soldiers were found to be at fault after an investigation (3) No one could identify the shooters c) Roosevelt dishonorably discharged the entire regiment of 167 soldiers (1) Some of whom had received the Medal of Honor for actions during the War of 1898 (2) Widely criticized but Roosevelt didn’t back down (3) 60 years later the Army cleared the records of all the black soldiers V. Taft and Retrenchment A. Election 1. Republicans a) Roosevelt decided he did not want to be that guy who won three consecutive terms b) Encouraged nomination of friend William Howard Taft c) Taft won the nomination 2. Democrats a) Went BACK to William Jennings Bryan (who apparently still had a following) 3. Outcome a) Republicans won 321 to 162 in the electoral college B. A Life of Public Service 1. Background a) Dad served in Grant’s cabinet b) Graduated second in his class from Yale c) Served on Ohio Supreme Court d) McKinley named him first American governor-general of the Philippines e) Roosevelt named him SecWar f) Fun fact: he never held an elected office before he became president 2. Goals a) Complete the programs that Roosevelt had started b) Preserve capitalism (1) Protecting the right to private property and the right of liberty c) Viewed himself as a judge-like administrator, not an innovator C. Taft and the Tariff 1. Supported lower tariffs on imports a) He wasn’t as good as Roosevelt at convincing Congress of things though (1) Lack of “crusading spirit” frustrated progressives (2) Roosevelt was also not happy D. The Taft-Roosevelt Feud 1. Roosevelt went away on a trip with his son for a year a) Assumed Taft would continue to follow in his footsteps b) Taft did not 2. Roosevelt gave progressive speech a) Kansas 1910 after his return b) “New Nationalism” (1) Wanted to go beyond the Square Deal (2) Promised to “change the rules” to force large corporations to promote social welfare and to serve the needs of the working people 3. Roosevelt entered Presidential race in 1912 a) Taft was nominated for reelection E. The Progressive Party 1. Roosevelt gathered breakaway Republicans and created the Progressive Party a) Nominated him as their candidate 2. Goals a) Minimum living wage for hourly workers b) Women’s suffrage c) System of “social security” to protect against sickness, unemployment, and disability VI. Woodrow Wilson: A Progressive Southerner A. Background 1. Education a) Graduated from Princeton, attended law school at UVA b) Didn’t like being a lawyer, enrolled in Johns Hopkins (1) Earned one of the nation’s first doctoral degrees c) Taught at several colleges d) Named President of Princeton in 1902 2. New Jersey governor B. The 1912 Election 1. Nomination a) Faced serious competition b) Got the nomination with the support of William Jennings Bryan 2. Candidates a) Democrats: Woodrow Wilson b) Republicans: William Howard Taft c) Socialist: Eugene V. Debs d) Progressive: Theodore Roosevelt 3. Outcome (electoral college) a) Wilson: 435 b) Roosevelt: 88 c) Taft: 8 d) Debs: 0 C. A Burst of Reform Bills 1. Colonel House a) “Colonel” Edward M. House of Texas (1) Wilson’s closest advisor (2) Held no official government position (3) Worked behind the scenes b) Most famous political partnership of the century c) Helped steer Wilson’s proposals through Congress 2. The Tariff and the Income Tax a) Summoned Congress to a special session (1) Lasted 18 months (2) Addressed members in person (first since John Adams) b) Tariff bill passed in the House easily (1) Met some resistance in the Senate c) Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act (1913) (1) Finally passed (2) Lowered tariff rates on almost 1000 imported products d) Created a graduated income tax 3. The Federal Reserve Act a) 1913 b) Created a national banking system with twelve regional districts (1) Each district had a Federal Reserve Bank owned by member banks (a) Supervised by a central board of directors in D. C. (2) Nationally chartered banks had to be members of the system (3) State chartered banks did not have to be members c) Purpose (1) Adjust the nation’s currency supply (2) Promote economic growth (3) Ensure stability and integrity of member banks 4. Anti-Trust Actions a) Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (1) 5 members (2) Had the power to define “unfair trade practices” (3) Could issue “cease and desist” orders where it found such practices b) Clayton Anti-Trust Fund (1) Drafted by Henry D. Clayton of Alabama in 1914 (2) Labor unions were not to be viewed as “monopolies in restraint of trade” (a) Which is how they had been viewed in courts since 1890 (3) Prohibited corporate directors from serving on boards of competing companies (4) Clarified the meaning of “monopolistic” activities VII. Wilson Declares Victory A. Progressivism for Whites Only 1. Wilson was just as racist as anyone else a) Disgusted by 15 Amendment during his college years b) Rarely consulted black leaders as a politician c) First President who openly endorsed racism 2. Josephus Daniels a) Wilson’s SecNav b) White supremist c) Racially segregated employees in his agencies B. The Vote for Women 1. Suffragists disappointed in Wilson a) He had two daughters who were suffragists b) Left the decision to states rather than try to pass an amendment 2. Alice Paul a) Decided that suffragists needed to be more aggressively protesting b) Gathered 5000 protesters at Wilson’s inauguration c) Picketed the White House four years later (1) Beginning in 1917, took turns carrying signs all day, 5 days a week, for months (2) President ordered their arrest (a) 60 were jailed (b) Alice Paul sentenced to 7 months, went on hunger strike, guards had to force feed her (c) Wilson eventually pardoned all the activists after heavy criticism C. Progressivism Renewed 1. Wilson wanted to win the reelection a) Nominated Louis D. Brandeis to the Supreme Court (1) “the people’s attorney” (2) First Jewish member of the Supreme Court D. Farm Legislation 1. Federal Farm Loan Act (1916) a) 12 Federal Land Banks offered loans to farmers for 5 to 40 years b) Low interest rates c) Farmers could borrow up to 50% of their land’s value 2. Warehouse Act (1916) a) Federal loans to farmers on the security of their crops stored in warehouses b) Available to sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and land owners 3. Smith-Lever Act (1914) a) Provided federal programs to educate farmers about new machinery and new ideas related to agricultural efficiency 4. Smith-Hughes Act (1917) a) Funded agricultural and mechanical education in high schools 5. Federal Highways Act (1916) a) Helped finance new highways, especially in rural areas E. Labor Legislation 1. Keating-Owen Act (1916) a) Banned products made by child workers under fourteen from being shipped across state lines b) Adamson Act (1916) (1) Declared 8-hour workday for railroad workers (2) Result of a threatened strike by railroad unions (3) Also required time and a half pay for overtime work (4) Appointed a committee to study the working conditions
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