History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #3
History 1302 - Lecture Notes Week #3 1302
Popular in History of U.S. Since 1865
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Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Manuel B Ramirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. Since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
History 1302 September 7 , 2016 Professor Ramirez Lecture Notes KEY PEOPLE KEY TERMS KEY INFO Manifest Destiny: - Americans believedthat we had the right to settle the westand that those Indians and immigrants in the west were of inferior races; by settling the west, the government believed they were bringing liberty, civilization, and democracy to the other territories Technological innovations: - Railroads, telegraphs, steam engines (on rivers),etc. used to facilitate the westward expansion The Conquest of the West Territoriesadded: o Oregon territory 1846: disputed betweenGreat Britainand the US, the US was willing to go to war for this territory o Mexican cession 1848 o Gadsden purchase 1853 o Minnesota territory 1849 o Texas annexation 1845 Why the conquest of the west? o Many Americans falsely believedthat settlement of the west was peaceful (but it involved much violence toward the Indian and Mexican populations) Encounter of cultures o Mexican cession was gained as a result of the Mexican American war from 1846- 1848 Commodore Thomas Jones (1842) o American Pacific Fleet – commander of this fleet o Took place a few years war broke out between the us and México, the US wanted this territory badly Took place in Monterey, Alta California Space Three different environmental areas of the west o Far West Covers the lands from Sierra Nevada and cascade mountains to the pacific ocean o Trans-MississippiWest th Covers the land from the Middle westto 98 parallel o Great Basin Covers the land from the SierraNevadas to the Rocky mountains “Great American Desert” o Very few Americans settled inthe westernunited states prior to the civil war because they believedthat much of the west was considered to be the great American desert o Stephen Long In 1819, he conducted an expedition to explore the great plains and he issued a warning that this area was the great American desert (believed that the land could not sustain farmers) The myth of the garden o Charles Dana Wilber A booster who wanted individuals to move to the western US Concluded that the west was a garden In the 1870s and 1880s there was a high amount of rainfall that contributed to this claim This lasteda short time and then the plains returned to a desert like state Time “Old West” o 1865-1890 o More land settled than in the first 250 years of American history Three Empires in the west o Mining – primarily for gold, silver,and copper o Ranching o Farming Images that Americans had of the west Self-reliance and rugged individualism o Cowboys, gunfighters, yeoman farmers, and cattle barons Migrations from the East Millions of settlers arrived in the west following the close of the civilwar in 1865 o Most of these settlers were native born inthe easternUS, alsoincluded European immigrants o Dependent on the completion of the transcontinental railroadwhich connected the Atlantic ocean to the pacific ocean Mexicans in the West The overwhelming amount of Mexicans inthe united states would lose their land Dispossession o Loss of land Couldn’t prove that they owned the land Much of the lands became national forests Violence – lynching o Josefa Segovia – first woman hung in the west, lynching occurred inCalifornia; stories say she killed a miner who was intruding on her land; they tried her in a kangaroo court and was hung despite being pregnant at the time (kangaroo court – court where the defendant doesn’t stand a chance) Segregation Disfranchisement o stripped away the right to vote for Mexicans, Texas had poll taxes in place up until 1866 and had the white man’s primary which dictated that to run inthe primary, you had to be a white man Mexican labor Mexicans that lost their lands became wage laborers Mining o AZ and NM, mining silver,copper,and coal o A very dangerous occupation, suffered from accidents, deaths, exposed to extreme temperatures and dangerous gases o 1870s-1880s o Segmented labor system Mexican Resistance in the SW united states El Paso saltwar (1877) o Mexicans would travel to the salt flats and use the salt for personal reasons or for trading, it was communal, but a group of white men… Gorras blancas (White caps) o Emerged in northern new México during the late 1800s o Protesting the loss of land by conducting raidslike burning railroadbridges, destroying tracks, and cutting fences Plan de San Diego (1915-1917) o Revolt staged by Mexicans in southern Texas due to the oppressionthat Mexican Americans werefacing o They wanted to create an independent state for Mexicans o 1000 to 3000 individuals participated inthis revolt, turned into a bloodbath for the Mexican Americans (army and Texas rangers were brought in to combat the revolt) o ~5000 Mexican Americans died during the revolt Government policies encouraged settlement inthe west Homestead act of 1862 o Provided settlers with 160 acres of land at low prices o Some conditions: had to live on land for 5 years and alsohad to improve the land o Problems: 160 acres was not enough to engage ineither farming or ranching soas a result many settlers eventually abandoned the land due to the lackof an ability to make a living Timber culture act of 1873 o Provided an addition 160 acres of land above what the homestead act provided o Conditions: had to plant trees on at least40 acres of that land Desert act of 1877 o Provided 640 acres at $1.25 per acres o Conditions: the land had to be irrigated within 3 years’ time Timber and stone act of 1878 o Applied to non-arable land; could be purchased at $2.50 per acre Problems o Fraud was fairly common o Much of the land went to land corporations rather than to individual settlers o Land was settled at the expense of the native Americans (End of lecture for Sept, 7 ) WesternEconomy Three economic empires (mining, ranching, farming) o 1860-1890s mining boom occurred, mining towns established but predominantly male (women worked in the bars and as prostitutes) o Ranching: demand for beef went up following the civil war Open range – drove cattle to railroadpoints so they could be shipped, initially high pricesfor cattle but there would be a cattle bust in the 1880s o Farming: commercial production of crops for the market There was an usually high amount of rainfall in the west during the 1870s- 1880s but then returned to normal rainfall in the mid-1880s. Farmers planted drought resistance crops, irrigatedcrops, dug wells Ties to the middle east – reliedon the east for capital and for their markets o Wages were higher in the west due to a labor shortage o Workers faced harsh working conditions and periods of unemployment due to the seasons o Many of the workers were Unmarried men who tended to move frequently o Went west to improve economic conditions o Worked under the dual labor/segmented labor system Minorities were largely concentrated inunskilled workthat offered low wages o Skilled work was largelyfor whites, offered higher wages, and workers were more likely to hold onto their jobs during tough economic times Indians of the West Diverse “Indian Territory” o Indians were located in the Indian territory (Oklahoma region…also considered to be the great American desert) Pacific Coast Indians o Previous contact with both the Spanish and Mexicans o Prior to the arrivalof the Spanish, they were numerous inCA ~300,000 Devastated population due to diseases Pueblos o Lived in towns and had createdfairly sophisticated societies o Grew a variety of crops – primarilycorn o Also practiced trade Plains Indians Most Numerous Diverse Group o Some had created permanent settlements while others were nomadic hunters o Labor divided according to gender Men werehunters, spiritual leaders,and warriors Women had domestic duties, however they also farmed and gathered food Slaughter of Buffalos o Many subsisted by hunting buffalo on horseback o Provided food, blankets, hides, supplies to make teepees/shelter o Warrior societies o An estimated 15 million buffalo livedin the plains, within 10 years that number was obliterated (killed due to railroadexpansion, hides, food, etc.) Weaknesses o With the killing of the buffalo, Indians lost a major wayto resist encroaching white society, led to dependence on the American government Unable to resistencroachment of white societydue to: Indian Policy (government policy towards Native Americans) Treaties o Native Americans would be allowedto keep some of their land o Would also be allowedto have some form of self-government Reservations o Reservations largely benefited white societybecause the Indians would be given land of lesser quality o Reservations were approveddue to the fact that Indians would be contained on their own land region and would reduce conflict o Francis Walker Believed in socialengineering Reservations were preferable instead of constant conflict between Indians and whites, protects them and us While Indians residedon these reservations, they would be domesticated and be taught how to farm, etc. Means of uplifting the Indians by teaching them the ways of society Indian Wars (conflicts betweenthe US army and Indians) Sioux o Conflict with the army beginning in1875 Sioux left their reservationand refused to return to it (due to corrupt government officials and the fact that miners had entered the blackhills) Army officials were dispatched to return them to their reservations o Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse Led the battle Later were killed on the reservationby reservationpolice o Battle of Little Big Horn A loss suffered by the US Army However, eventually they were to be defeated and returned to their reservations Nez Perce o A tragic example, native Americans that residedinOR; forced to move and during the move they killed several whites while trying to allude the army; they were captured prior to reaching the Canadian border o Many of these Indians died from disease and starvation o Chief joseph Captured and displayed as a war trophy Apaches o Atrocities were committed against this group by the US government: Would be invited to peace talks and then massacred o Geronimo Led the apaches during the 1870s 1886, native Americans in this group had been defeated Battle of Wounded Knee A massacre that the US army conducted against the native Americans in order to prevent the Sioux from performing the dance (Army believedit was more like a war dance) o Army officials searched teepees looking for weapons o Shot fired and began the war o Men, women, and children were killed One of the last major encounters between the native Americans and the US army Ghost dance o Army wanted to suppress this dances o Ghost shirts – meant to protect them from bullets o Goal of the dance– regenerate the earth, return of the buffalo, no illness,young and healthy, great flood that would wipe out the whites o Practiced by the Sioux Wovoka o Developed the dance, taught by god, encouraged the others to dance Last military encounter betweenIndians and US Government th (End of lecture for the 9 )
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