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Abnormal Psychology (Getzfeld) Week 1-2

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by: Willow Frederick

Abnormal Psychology (Getzfeld) Week 1-2 Psych-UA 51

Marketplace > New York University > Psychology (PSYC) > Psych-UA 51 > Abnormal Psychology Getzfeld Week 1 2
Willow Frederick
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About this Document

These notes cover all lectures we have had so far- September 7-14.
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Andrew Getzfeld
Class Notes
psych, mentalillness, neurotransmitters, Freud, abnormalpsych, Psychology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willow Frederick on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych-UA 51 at New York University taught by Dr. Andrew Getzfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at New York University.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Abnormal Psychology – Dr. Getzfeld September 7­14, 2016 (Week 1­2) What is psychological abnormality? deviance, distress, dysfunction, danger   Getzfeld’s KEY: early intervention!  Freud’s original couch is located in LONDON­ possible bonus question  Diagnosable depression­ lasts more than 6 months   Clinical Terms o Presents: what is the main reason/problem for the patient to come for help?  Aka what is the problem as would be written up on the referral sheet?  Sometimes this isn’t the real, underlying problem   Ex. Marital problems… but psychiatrist discovers that really they have a  drinking problem & that’s the real issue  o Clinical description: all symptoms that make up the disorder o Prevalence: how many people have this disorder? o Incidence: how many cases do we see per year? (CDC) o Course: pattern of the disorder (chronic, episodic, time­limited)  Chronic: long­lasting, sometimes lifetime—doesn’t mean it has no cure or we can’t treat it.  Can we help them? Yes. Can we cure it? Maybe not.   Episodic: lasts a few months but probably recurs   Time­limited: improves on its own in a relatively short time (ex. PE o Onset: acute vs. insidious   Acute: come out of the blue/begins suddenly   Insidious: occurs over a period of time, perhaps years (ex. Schizo)  PTSD­ has to be at least a month after event; acute onset stress disorder  can arise quickly after event  o Prognosis: expected future course of the disorder o Etiology: why a disorder begins & what causes it   Don’t know what causes bipolar 1, for example 3 ways to define abnormal behavior 1. Statistical Frequency: behavior is abnormal if it occurs rarely in relation to the general  population 2. Social Norms: behavior is abnormal if it deviates greatly from accepted social  standards/values/norms  3. Maladaptive Perspective: behavior is abnormal if it interferes w/one’s ability to  function in life  Causes of Abnormal Behavior   Views & treatment changed over time: o Ancient: supernatural view: work of evil spirits, or agents outside of the boday  influence thinking, behavior, emotions treatment was to get demons  outtrephination (drilling holes in skull) & exorcism  o Greek & Roman: st  Hippocrates: 1  to see connection mind/body connection (bw biology &  mental disorders)father of modern medicine  His view on treatment: take care of physical problems & then mind will follow o Cure illness by: rest, proper diet, sobriety, exercise   Melancholia= depression  He saw abnormal behavior as a disease arising from internal  physical problems  o Melancholia: depression o Mania: excessive amount of energy o Phrenitis: brain fever   Galen: took Hippocrates’ ideas & expanded:  Galen saw psychiatric disorders as result of chemical imbalance  Homesostasis­ balance! o Biological Treatments  Insulin (insulin shock therapy)­ some calmed after convulsions/coma  ECT: electroconvulsive therapy­not sure why it works but it’s been used  since 1920s; also used to induce seizures   Pre­frontal Lobotomies­ no longer used   Psychotropic Medications­ humane; since 1952. Chloropromazine  (Thorazine)  Bipolar runs in families­that’s a fact­ can skip a generation o Emil Kraepelin: a founding father of psychiatry­ did little treatment but  st developed the 1  modern system for classifying abnormal behavior (diagnostic &  classification system)   Diathesis­Stress Model: your genes interact w/the environment to produce a  trait/disorder. Ppl must first inherit certain genes, THEN be exposed to severe stress o How one is susceptible to disorder  o Nature & Nurture! o Can be any type of stress­physical, psychological, environmental  o Light Switch Model (Getzfeld)  Stress turns on switch­then you’re more susceptible   Light switch= genetic disposition to getting a disorder   But there are always outliers, may not need the switch or a specific event  How is the mind related to the body?  Bottom­Up: biological factors influence psychological experiences   Top­Down: psychosocial experiences influence biological processes  Sigismund (Sigmund) FREUD  Born 1856 May 6­ in Freiberg, Moravia, now Pribor in the Czech Republic  Parents were jewish but Freud was atheist   Oldest of 8 kids. Also had 2 half­brothers   1859: moved to Vienna, Austria  became a medical doctor in 1881   1885­6: 1 yr internship in Oaris  1886: married Martha Bernays­ had 6 kids  1891: moved to Berrgasse, Vienna, there until 1938  1895: Anna was born   1896: founded psychoanalysis   1900: interpretation of dreams published   1909: guest lectured at Clark College­only time he visited USA  1923: contacts oral cancer  1938: emigrates to London, dies there a yr later  FREUD’s Psyche:  ID o Totally UNconscious, “fun” part of personality  o Houses biological drives/needs (sex drive­pleasure) o Theory: present at birth, same size & strength for all o Immediate gratification­ can never be satisfied ! o Primary Process Thinking: disregards logic  o Our IDs are all the same size/strength –Freud said men & women had identical  needs!  If something is off, it’s bc their ego or superego is off o Only part of personality present at birth  EGO o seeks gratification but does so w/reality principle  o partially conscious/unconscious  o bw devil & angel­­rational thinking  o Ego defense mechanism: to control unacceptable ID impulses  o Repression prevents the impulses from ever reaching consciousness   SUPEREGO o Last piece of psyche to develop – everybody has it  o Partially conscious & unconscious  o Morality Principle: conscience & guilt  o Product of your upbringing// we unconsciously adopt parents’ values,  environment o Things like anxiety & eating disorders can be due to an overactive superego  Ego develops out of ID, & superego out of ego3 are often in conflict   Garbage Pail Model  o Above waterline= conscious  o Below waterline= unconscious­ very hard to access­poke holes & water will rush  out o Iceberg Model o  Freud explained normal & abnormal functioning thru developmental stages  o Proposed that at each stage, new events & pressures require adjustment in the id,  ego, & superego   Successful adjustment= personal growth   Unsuccessful adjustment= fixationpsychological abnormality  o Often saw parents as cause of improper development bc they’re key figures in  early life  NEURO­TRANSMITTERS o Serotonin: regulates mood, body temp, sleep, appetite o levels too LOWunipolar depression, bulimia, schizo, bipolar 1&2, impulsive &  aggressive behavior  bipolar first presenting itself at 40­50 yrs old is VERY rare­probably a  misdiagnosis o Acetylcholine: memory, anger, aggression, triggers muscle movement & contraction o lack involved w/memory, anger, aggression o lack of it plays a role in memory lapses associated w/alzheimer’s  o cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s  o Dopamine (Da): goal­seeking behavior/rewards, pleasure­seeking behavior  o Also regulates mood & movement  o Too little= parkinsons  o Too much= maybe in bipolar & schizo  o Levodopa­synthetic dopamine (L­Dopa) improves movement issues of  Parkinson’s   Effects are time­limited—eventually patient becomes immune to it o These meds do not increase or destroy   If too much, the nt acts as a dummy plug   If you need more, the drug helps these nt’s to get to the right part of your  brain o Gamma­Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) o Involved with the regulation of anxiety, movement o It calms you down so it’s sometimes seen as a depressive neurotransmitter  o Low levels lead to excessive anxiety, but a neuron signal overload can cause  seizures o Increase GABA transmission & you will raise seizure threshold & decrease  anxiety! o Norepinephrine (Ne) o Involved w stress responses o Influences alertness o Arousal, reward  o Implicated in anxiety & mood conditions, including unipolar depression & bipolar 1&2 o Use selective Ne reuptake inhibitors (SNRI’s) to alleviate depression  o Serotonin (Se) o Regulates mood, body temp, sleep, appetite, sex drive (libido­not in Freud sense) o Implicated in unipolar depression, impulsive behavior, aggression, & a slew of  other disorders  o Selective serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) used to treat unipolar depression  & anxiety  o Prozac (SSRI) is the most famous, sometimes used to treat bulimia  Prozac & Zoloft increase serotonin levels  o Paxil can be used to treat PTSD & social phobia  o Glutamate o Associated w memory & learning o The main excitatory neurotransmitter  o May have roles in alzheimers, addictions, & schizo 


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