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PSY 100 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

by: Kaitlyn Notetaker

PSY 100 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes PSY 100

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > PSY 100 > PSY 100 Chapter 1 Lecture Notes
Kaitlyn Notetaker
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These notes encompass all the notes associated with chapter 1 in both lecture and some from lab.
Jonathan Golding
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Jonathan Golding in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

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Date Created: 09/14/16
Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes 1 Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology  What is Psychology? o University of Kentucky beats Wisconsin in basketball  “Big Blue Nation reacts to Kentucky’s Final Four Victory”  How did you behave? -People sat up in their seats, made a particular sound, smiled  Definition: Psychology is the science that studies behavior and mental process  As a science, the goal of Psychology (and other sciences) is to discover the laws or principles that govern the relations among objects being studied  Laws enable predictions and (sometimes) control of the objects actions  So what do you know about Psychology? 1. Psychology is concerned with more than mental disorders  Three Ways of Doing Psychology 1. Applied Psychological Specialties (about 65% of all PhD psychologists)  Tackle real-world problems  Example: school psychologists, clinical psychologists (deal with more severe cases of mental disorders), counseling psychologist 2. Experimental Psychologists conduct basic research  Example: Cognitive (brain), Physiological (body), Developmental (growth throughout life), Social (how people interact with each other) Psychologists 3. Teachers of Psychology  A Psychologist is not the same as a Psychiatrist 1. A psychiatrist is an M.D. and can prescribe and administer drugs (only in a couple states can psychologists prescribe drugs)  Specialization leads to many phenomenon being studied 1. Relationship between the brain and psychological phenomena  Electrical brain stimulation 2. Atomization  Example: STROOP EFFECT  An experiment where the participant had to read a list of colors that were spelled with the same color font are the word it spelled. (the word blue was spelled out with blue letters). Then the participant read a list of colors where the word was spelled out with a different color font. The goal is to identify the word not the font color Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes 2 Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler  It’s easier to go fast when recognizing the color of the font was the same as the color spelled out  The participant went slower when what the word spelled out wasn’t the color font that was used 3. Conformity  We’re all conformists 4. Eating Disorders 5. Forgetting  A single phenomenon can also be studied from different vantage points  Example: Dreams 1. Conscious Mental Experience  Incorporating what is said while sleeping into a dream 2. Dreams as Behavior  Rapid eye movement during 85% of dreams  Electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns during the REM similar to those when awake 3. Dreams reflect the unconscious  FREUD—dreams are a “censored masquerade” defending you from the clash between unconscious primitive urges (e.g. sex) and the civilizing constraints imposed by society o Symbols in dreams reflect unconscious urges (e.g. riding a horse symbolized the rhythmic movements of sexual intercourse) 4. Dreams are cognition  Dreams reflect what we know, experienced, remembered, or thought about o Upcoming exams, dieting, someone to whom we are attracted  Scientific Research involves a set of producers known as the scientific method  Several steps 1. Make an Observation  Ex: people who smile get talked to a lot 2. Do background research  Library, internet 3. Develop a hypothesis  A testable prediction o Example: people who smile get talked to more at a party than people who do not smile 4. Collect Data Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes 3 Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler  Collect data (empirical evidence) that supports or refutes  Operational definition- define what you are studying in terms of specific operations o Example: what does it mean to “get talked to”  Operationally define “get talked to” in terms of at least words not just “hi”  Have 10 people go to a party ( 5 males & 5 females) and smile vs 10 (5 males & 5 females) people go to the party but do NOT smile  The data collected is how much the people get talked to 5. Analyze the results  Determine if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected 6. Communicate your results  Report your findings precisely enough in a scientific journal so that others can test your hypothesis and replicate your findings  All scientists follow the scientific method but each science has research method specific to their discipline  Descriptive Methods a) Naturalistic study—no interference with behavior  Hypothesis: little boys are more aggressive than girls. Go to park and study boys and girls and tally up how often either of them are being aggressive b) Survey—questionnaire or interview administered to select group (random sample) of people  Obtain descriptions of behavior from more people than direct observation usually allows  Take a random sample of the population because you cannot usually ask everyone about the behavior in question  Your sample should be representative of the population c) Case study—intensive description and analysis of a single individual  Correlational Method  Investigate relationship between two variables to determine whether they occur together or not in a systemic way  Correlation coefficient is calculated value between +1.00 and -1.00 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes 4 Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler  Positive Correlation—is when one variable increases so does the other (the opposite is also true) o Example: as exposure of cute kittens goes up, happiness goes up  Negative Correlation—is when one variable increases the other decreases (they go in opposite directions) o Example: as exposure of cute kittens goes up, sadness goes down  A (-) indicated that the correlation is negative however does not decrease the value. o For instance, -0.80 is a stronger correlation than +0.20 even though it is negative  The stronger the relationship the higher the value  Zero means no relationship  Correlation does not equal causality o Example a positive correlation between success in college and eating chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream does not mean eating this ice cream will cause it to do well in college.  Could be the other way around or some other factor may be involved 3. The Experimental Method  Establish cause and effect o Manipulate Independent variable to see the effect on the Dependent variable o Example: watching TV when studying lowers test grades  Independent variable  vary it independently of other factors  IV is watching TV or Not  Experimental group  the group that is having something done to them (watch tv)  Control group  the group not having anything done to them  Experimental group vs control group  Random assignment into groups  Dependent variable  varies depending on what occurs during experiment  DV is exam score  What do your results mean?  Watch TV- 76.8  No TV- 90.5  You need to go beyond the data Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes 5 Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler  Evaluation of ideas based on probability, no statements of certainty  What is the probability that I got this result by chance?  BEST to have results where the probability of getting a result by chance is less than 5 in 100 (p< .05)  In other words, you are at least 95% certain that your result is NOT due to chance  Measurement o The process of assigning numbers to values of a variable o 4 Levels of Measurement  Nominal-Organized in discrete (no specific order) categories  Ex: dividing two groups between male and females or dividing by race or by political party  Ordinal- categories that have a specific order number but no specific distance between categories  Ex: 1 , 2 , 3 place in a race  Interval- constant difference between values; no true 0  Ex: There is a year 0 but it isn’t the beginning of time, a thermometer has a zero but the temperature can dip down below it and zero is not the absence of heat  Ratio- meaningful zero,  Ex: height and weight  Problems in Psychological data collection: o Ethical considerations in conducting research—shock, deprivation, aggression o Practical considerations in conducting research  Length of time to conduct study may be too long  Amount of money required may be too much (e.g. buying equipment)  Too many participants may be needed  Physiological Aspects of Psychology o Question: what are the internal mechanisms and structures that determine how any given behavioral sequence operates o Nemo video clip of Nemo chasing Dory because she forgot that she said she’d help him o How do we know so much about the physiology-psychology relationship?  Research!!! o With Alzheimer’s disease the brain is being destroyed 6 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler


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