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PSY 100 Chapter 2 Neuroscience

by: Kaitlyn Notetaker

PSY 100 Chapter 2 Neuroscience PSY 100

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > PSY 100 > PSY 100 Chapter 2 Neuroscience
Kaitlyn Notetaker
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These notes cover all the lecture notes for chapter 2
Jonathan Golding
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Jonathan Golding in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
1 PSY 100 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler Chapter 2 Neuroscience  Neurons o Estimated to be over 100 billion neurons in the human nervous system  An individual cell is called a “neuron”  Multiple neurons serving a single function is called a “nerve” o Neurons consist of three parts  1. Cell body (soma)- metabolism occurs here  2. Dendrites- many short fibers from soma that receive activity from adjacent cells  3. Axon- single fiber extending away from soma that transmits activity to other neurons, muscles or glands (think about when you’re swinging an ax you swing it away)  Maybe 2-3 feet long  Glial cells from myelin sheath around axon- protective coat that helps speed neuron impulse o Hardening of myelin sheath leads to less ability to transmit nerve impulses which causes Multiple Sclerosis.  Transmission of Neural Impulses o Synapse- junction between neurons (slight physical separation)  Electrochemical Process o *********** add info  How does the electrochemical process start? OR How do neurons communicate? o Neurons communicate via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters that are stored in synaptic vesicles  The neurotransmitters cross from one neuron to another at receptor sites to excite and inhibit  Experiment (Shoulder/ Ankle Experiment) o There are two groups in this experiment:  Two groups of 6 people each stand shoulder to shoulder. One group is designated “shoulders” and their task is to one by one squeeze the shoulder of the person to the right of them until the person at the end of the line yells “STOP” to indicate that their shoulder was squeezed. Their starting position is standing straight up. To balance it out the “ankle” group starts bent over at the waist so that it is easier for them to reach the ankles of the person to the right of them. The task of the “ankle” group is to one by one squeeze the ankle of the person to the right of them until the person at the end of the line says “STOP”.  Independent Variable: holding ankle or shoulder  Dependent Variable: time is takes to accomplish the task  Hypothesis?  The “shoulder” group will finish before the “ankle” group WHY? 2 PSY 100 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler o There is a shorter distance that the neurons have to travel to your brain. o Distance for neurons to travel:  “shoulder group”: shoulder (point of squeeze)  brain  hand  “ankle” group: ankle (point of squeeze)  brain (all the way up your body)  hand (to squeeze next person)  Example of Neurotransmitters and their function o Acetylcholine (Ach)- enables muscle action, learning, and memory  Fewer neurons that produce Ach in Alzheimer’s patients o Serotonin- affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal  Low levels tied to depression (Prozac and other drugs raise serotonin levels)  The effect of drugs on neurotransmitter activity o Antagonist- a drug that binds to a cell and blocks an action from occurring (to remember this word think about how the antagonist is always trying to BLOCK the protagonist from succeeding).  Example: Curare blocks receptor sites for the muscles (including the heart), it takes about a minute to kill you o Agonist- a drug that binds to a cell and triggers a response by the cell  Example: some opiate drugs (morphine) produce a temporary “high” by amplifying normal sensations of pleasure Organization of the Nervous System  Central Nervous System o Brain, spinal cord (simple reflexes)  Brain o 3 layers of the brain  Brainstem (low level of the brain) a) Medulla- breathing, heartbeat (Ex: when you’re really stressed your medulla has to work in overtime to catch up with your rapid breathing and heartbeat) b) Reticular formation- helps to control arousal o Researchers in 1949 found out that if you sleep electrically stimulated the RF in a sleeping cat, the cat almost immediately becomes awake and alert o Independent Variable: stimulating RF vs another part of the brain c) Thalamus- sensory relay station on way to cortex o Receives sensory info from all senses except smell d) Cerebellum- processing sensory input, motor coordination, balance o If you get hit in the back of the head the cerebellum is disrupted and this is what causes you to see stars and fall over  Limbic System- ring of structures around brain stem 3 PSY 100 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler a) Amygdala- linked to emotion (aggression and fear) and conscious memories b) Hippocampus- helps forming memories o Alcoholism prohibits memory formation o Hypothalamus- control of temperature, metabolism, endocrine balance, and linked to emotion and reward (including pleasure) c) Clive Wearing- a disease in which the person cannot remember anything, they have very short term memory. They may know that they have family members but cannot remember new information about them  Cerebral Cortex- outer layer of right and left hemispheres o What we thing about when we typically talk about the brain b) Sensory functions: o Includes receiving sensory information and dispatching motor control signals c) Motor Functions: o Keep in mind that typically the right hemisphere controls the left part of the body and the left hemisphere controls the right part of the body d) Association Areas (3/4 of Cortex) o Involved in “higher mental functioning” such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking, and integrating information o Mapping the Cortex  Each hemisphere includes several large parts called lobes (e.g. occipital lobe at back of brain) *need to know frontal and occipital for the test  Frontal  Parietal  Occipital  Temporal ******insert picture  Example: frontal lobe- modifies emotions to generally fit socially acceptable norms as well as planning, reasoning, memory  Damage frontal lobes can lead to a person who shows no impulse control  Case of Phineas Gage  He now has no impulse control and he cannot show appropriate control o Examples of other more defined areas of cortec  Broca’s Area- damage to this area leads to loss of speech production but speech comprehension not affected 4 PSY 100 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler  Example: Groot from Guardians of the Galaxy, he can understand everything but has a very limited vocabulary  Broca’s Patient  Wernicke’s Area- damage to this area leads to loss of speech comprehension  ^ left hemisphere  **for every lecture you should make close to 20 flashcards  One brain or two brains? o Besides controlling different halves of the body, the functions of each hemisphere are different (cerebral lateralization) o In a typical right-handed person:  Right hemisphere- spatial orientation, face, recognition, music, visual imagery  Left hemisphere- language, math, logic o The hemispheres are connected by fibers called the corpus callosum  Split brain patients – cut corpus callosum in cases of severe epilepsy o What happens?  Example 1: An image is to be viewed by the left hemisphere. When asked “what do you see?” the person says “I see a cup” because the image is translated in the left hemisphere where language is controlled  Example 2: An image is projected to be viewed by the right hemisphere. “what do you see?” the participant responds “I don’t see anything”. This is because the image is projected to the hemisphere that has no language ability so they have no words to describe it. a) When asked to pick out the object by touching it they are able to do it because spatially they are able to feel it. However, they still cannot describe it using the right hemisphere  Peripheral Nervous System o Interfaces the central nervous system and the environment  Somatic System- deals with voluntary actions a) Carries messages to and from sense receptors, muscles, and body surface  Autonomic System- deals with involuntary actions a) Carries messages to internal organs from central nervous system  Autonomic System Examined Further o Two divisions  Parasympathetic Division a) Conserve and protect bodily resources o Function: stimulates digestion, pupil constriction, lower heart rate  Sympathetic Division (“Fight or Flight”) 5 PSY 100 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler a) Prepares body in cases of emotional excitement o Inhibit digestion, dilate pupil, increase heart rate, sweating, increasing respiration o Example: A new news broadcaster is VERY nervous to present on national news and he involuntarily gets very sweaty and his heart rate goes up b) Using the sympathetic division to test for lying o A polygraph or lie detector test  Measures amount of sweat means skin can (galvanometer—more sweat means skin can conduct more electricity), heart rate, breathing rate (pneumographs), blood pressure  One of the first questions they ask you are what’s called Control Questions to get your base line measurements when you’re relaxed  These questions are things that you wouldn’t lie about such as your name, birthday, hometown  Then they ask you the questions that you might want to lie about.  When people lie their sympathetic division comes into play (they begin to sweat, heart rate increases, breathing increases)  Polygraph evidence is not allowed in a court of law because they are not reliable and an innocent person could also be a very nervous person.  To beat a lie detector test put a thumb tack in your shoe and step on it during the beginning questions so that your “normal” heart rate and other measurements are high. So the test won’t know when you’re lying.  The Endocrine System o Complements and often works with autonomic nervous system  Carries out long-term regulation of basic body functions and helps deal w/ stress o Secretes hormones (chemicals) directly into bloodstream to act on body  Pancreas—regulates level of sugar in blood  Adrenals (located on top of kidneys)—adrenaline (energy)  Ovaries and testes—sex drive, development  Thyroid—metabolism, bone growth, body heat production 6 PSY 100 Professor Johnathan Golding Lecture Notes Written by Kaitlyn Hostetler


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