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Chapter 3 Indian/Buddhist Art

by: Shelby Bussard

Chapter 3 Indian/Buddhist Art art 2430

Marketplace > Wright State University > Art > art 2430 > Chapter 3 Indian Buddhist Art
Shelby Bussard
GPA 2.7

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About this Document

Here we are in week 3 !! This chapter covers the amazing works out art of Buddhist and Indian culture. There are many important terms covered and also some dates for upcoming tests and papers. Good...
Non-western Art
sally struthers
Class Notes
Art, wright, state, University, NonWestern
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Bussard on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to art 2430 at Wright State University taught by sally struthers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Non-western Art in Art at Wright State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 3  India and Southeast Asia  Book notes ­ Seal from the Indus Valley civilization  ­ Horned bull with hieroglyphs ­ Pakistan, Mohenjo­Daro  ­ 3rd millennium BCE ­ National museum, Karachi  ­ Seal impression from the Indus Valley civilization  ­ Yogi “holy man”  ­ Yogini “holy woman”  ­ With hieroglyphs  ­ Dancing figure ­ Pakistan ­ Fluid  ­ Relaxed ­ Tribhanga  ­ 3 bends poses ­ Vedic Period ­ 1600­322 BCE ­ Waves of Indo­European (Aryan) peoples invades Indus Valley ­ No archeological record of cities, burials, or works of art ­ Spoke an early form of sanskrit  ­ Sacred literature: vedas  ­ Karma (credit) and re­incarnation  ­ Social hierarchy became the Hindu caste system ­ Nirvana ­ The liberated individual soul  Buddhism  ­ Prince Siddhartha Gauthama  ­ Teachings a reaction against vedic hierarchy  ­ Two buddhist traditions emerged, both stressing  ­ Compassion ­ Selflessness ­ One emphasizes breaking the cycle of  reincarnation and achieving Nirvana (meditative) ­ The other attainment of  enlightenment for everyone (prayer and faith) ­ Starts in India ­ First Buddhist tradition spreads to Sri Lanka and SE Asia ­ Second takes root in China, Japan, and Korea ­ Buddhism dies out in India by 10th century  Buddha ­ Prince Siddhartha Gautama born 564 BCE ­ Born in Nepal ­ Queen Maya gave birth to him through her side while reaching up to touch a sal  tree ­ He was prophesied to his father that he would grow up to rule the world or  become a great spiritual leader ­ Sheltered in the court  ­ At 29 ventured outside ­ saw suffering of humanity  ­ Renounced materialism  ­ Left wife and family ­ Sought enlightenment ­ In 537 BCE, while meditating under a pipal tree, he resisted the demon Mara and achieved enlightenment  ­ Pipal became bodhi (enlightenment) tree ­ It’s site bodhgaya (place of enlightenment) ­ Siddhartha became a buddha (one who has awakened) ­ Became known as Shakyamuni (one who has awakened) ­ Preached first sermon in the Deer Park at Sarnath  ­ Set in motion the wheel (Chakra) of the law (Dharma) ­ Thus founded Buddhism ­ When he died he was cremated and ashes shone like pearls  ­ Bodhissatvas  ­ Wise and compassionate supernatural beings ­ Buddhist monasteries flourished and spread buddhism Maurya Period ­ 325­121 BCE ­ Stone pillars ­ Axis of the world to link heaven and earth  ­ Face north, south, east, and west ­ Reminiscent of Achaemenid Persia  ­ Persepolis  Birth of Buddha ­ From Gandhara, India  Lion Capital from Sarnath, Ashoka Pillar, Uttar Pradesh, India, Maurya period  ­ 3rd century BCE ­ Sandstone, 7 feet fall  ­ Lions = buddha  ­ Shakyamuni ­ Wheel of law ­ Rivers ­ Horse ­ Bull ­ Elephant ­ Lion ­ Lotus Indian Parliament Building, Bangalore ­ The Ashoka Lion capital or the Sarnath lion capital is the national symbol of India ­ The Sarnath pillar bears one of the Edicts of Ashoka, an  inscription against division within the Buddhist community, which reads “no one  shall cause division in the order of monks.”  ­ The pillar is a column surmounted by a capital which consists of a  canopy representing an inverted bell­shaped lotus flower, a short cylindrical  abacus with four 24­spoked Dharma wheels with four animals (an elephant, a  bull, a horse, a lion)  ­ Elephant ­ Represents the Buddha’s idea in reference to the dream of Queen Maya of a white elephant entering her womb  ­ Bull ­ Represents desire during the life of the Buddha as a prince ­ Horse ­ Buddha’s departure from palatial life ­ Lion ­ The accomplishment of Buddhahood  ­ Bull Capital, Ashoka Pillar, from Rampurva, Bihar India ­ Maurya period  ­ Shunga Period ­ Stupas ­ When buddha died was cremated ­ His remains divided and placed in 8 burial mounds: stupas ­ Emperor Ashoka divided these into 84,000 legendary stupas ­ Dome ­ cosmological significance  ­ Great Stupa  ­ Sanchi ­ Founded 3rd century BCE  ­ Yasti  ­ Mast ­ Axis of world mountain ­ Dome ­ Arc of the sky ­ Vedika  ­ Railing ­ Separates sacred and profane (lower one) ­ Harmika ­ Upper railing ­ Toranas ­ Gates ­ 3­tiered chattra ­ Buddha ­ Law and community of monks ­ Mr. Meru ­ World mountain ­ Mandala ­ Circle or arc ­ A diagram of the Buddhist cosmos ­ Jatakas ­ Stories of the lives of the buddha In class notes  Mini writing assignment #2 due 9/25 Test #1 10/4 No class 10/18 DAI field trip 10/20 Research paper due 12/4  ­ Hinduism was present before Buddhism ­ Buddhism grew from Hinduism  ­ Early buddhist art is aniconic  ­ Wheel of life ­ Bodhi tree ­ Kushan Period ­ Gandara style ­ First images of Buddha ­ Greek influence ­ Western influence ­ Used Alexander the great to model Buddha ­ Urna ­ Third eye ­ Placed on forehead ­ Ushnisha  ­ Sign of intelligence ­ Nimbus  ­ Symbol of holiness ­ Long ear lobes ­ Buddha was wealthy ­ He was an Indian prince ­ Anyone who attains enlightenment is a Buddha ­ Sanghati ­ Gown ­ Ascetic ­ Given up worldly goods ­ Mudras ­ Hand gestures  Gupta Period ­ Seated Buddha preaching 1st sermon ­ Most famous image ­ Yogi ascetic ­ Lion throne ­ Teaching gesture ­ Winged lions = royalty ­ Serene pose ­ Predella ­ Story underneath sculpture ­ Deer ­ Wheel  ­ Scene of sermon under sculpture  ­ Lotus ­ Symbol of enlightenment, purity ­ Progress of the soul ­ Ajanta Cave ­ India ­ Carved from the rocks  ­ Beautiful Bodhissava ­ Tribhanga pose  ­ Padmapani = lotus, breath in ­ Jatakas ­ Stories of Buddha ­ Colossal Buddha ­ On silk road ­ Sand stone ­ Blown up 2001 ­ Gandharan style  ­ Thangka  ­ 800 years old, survived in cave ­ Silk painting ­ Tibetan mystical religion ­ Dali Lama (Tibetan priest)  ­ Ocean High Priest  ­ Leader of Tibetan Buddhism ­ Won nobel peace prize  ­ Brilliant colors ­ Symbol of wisdom ­ Painted banner ­ Sky burial ­ Bodies are broken into pieces and fed to the birds ­ Stupas ­ Sacred places ­ Ananda ­ Buddha’s cousin 2,000 monuments around area 


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