Chapter 3 Indian/Buddhist Art
Chapter 3 Indian/Buddhist Art art 2430
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Bussard on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to art 2430 at Wright State University taught by sally struthers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Non-western Art in Art at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 3 India and Southeast Asia Book notes Seal from the Indus Valley civilization Horned bull with hieroglyphs Pakistan, MohenjoDaro 3rd millennium BCE National museum, Karachi Seal impression from the Indus Valley civilization Yogi “holy man” Yogini “holy woman” With hieroglyphs Dancing figure Pakistan Fluid Relaxed Tribhanga 3 bends poses Vedic Period 1600322 BCE Waves of IndoEuropean (Aryan) peoples invades Indus Valley No archeological record of cities, burials, or works of art Spoke an early form of sanskrit Sacred literature: vedas Karma (credit) and reincarnation Social hierarchy became the Hindu caste system Nirvana The liberated individual soul Buddhism Prince Siddhartha Gauthama Teachings a reaction against vedic hierarchy Two buddhist traditions emerged, both stressing Compassion Selflessness One emphasizes breaking the cycle of reincarnation and achieving Nirvana (meditative) The other attainment of enlightenment for everyone (prayer and faith) Starts in India First Buddhist tradition spreads to Sri Lanka and SE Asia Second takes root in China, Japan, and Korea Buddhism dies out in India by 10th century Buddha Prince Siddhartha Gautama born 564 BCE Born in Nepal Queen Maya gave birth to him through her side while reaching up to touch a sal tree He was prophesied to his father that he would grow up to rule the world or become a great spiritual leader Sheltered in the court At 29 ventured outside saw suffering of humanity Renounced materialism Left wife and family Sought enlightenment In 537 BCE, while meditating under a pipal tree, he resisted the demon Mara and achieved enlightenment Pipal became bodhi (enlightenment) tree It’s site bodhgaya (place of enlightenment) Siddhartha became a buddha (one who has awakened) Became known as Shakyamuni (one who has awakened) Preached first sermon in the Deer Park at Sarnath Set in motion the wheel (Chakra) of the law (Dharma) Thus founded Buddhism When he died he was cremated and ashes shone like pearls Bodhissatvas Wise and compassionate supernatural beings Buddhist monasteries flourished and spread buddhism Maurya Period 325121 BCE Stone pillars Axis of the world to link heaven and earth Face north, south, east, and west Reminiscent of Achaemenid Persia Persepolis Birth of Buddha From Gandhara, India Lion Capital from Sarnath, Ashoka Pillar, Uttar Pradesh, India, Maurya period 3rd century BCE Sandstone, 7 feet fall Lions = buddha Shakyamuni Wheel of law Rivers Horse Bull Elephant Lion Lotus Indian Parliament Building, Bangalore The Ashoka Lion capital or the Sarnath lion capital is the national symbol of India The Sarnath pillar bears one of the Edicts of Ashoka, an inscription against division within the Buddhist community, which reads “no one shall cause division in the order of monks.” The pillar is a column surmounted by a capital which consists of a canopy representing an inverted bellshaped lotus flower, a short cylindrical abacus with four 24spoked Dharma wheels with four animals (an elephant, a bull, a horse, a lion) Elephant Represents the Buddha’s idea in reference to the dream of Queen Maya of a white elephant entering her womb Bull Represents desire during the life of the Buddha as a prince Horse Buddha’s departure from palatial life Lion The accomplishment of Buddhahood Bull Capital, Ashoka Pillar, from Rampurva, Bihar India Maurya period Shunga Period Stupas When buddha died was cremated His remains divided and placed in 8 burial mounds: stupas Emperor Ashoka divided these into 84,000 legendary stupas Dome cosmological significance Great Stupa Sanchi Founded 3rd century BCE Yasti Mast Axis of world mountain Dome Arc of the sky Vedika Railing Separates sacred and profane (lower one) Harmika Upper railing Toranas Gates 3tiered chattra Buddha Law and community of monks Mr. Meru World mountain Mandala Circle or arc A diagram of the Buddhist cosmos Jatakas Stories of the lives of the buddha In class notes Mini writing assignment #2 due 9/25 Test #1 10/4 No class 10/18 DAI field trip 10/20 Research paper due 12/4 Hinduism was present before Buddhism Buddhism grew from Hinduism Early buddhist art is aniconic Wheel of life Bodhi tree Kushan Period Gandara style First images of Buddha Greek influence Western influence Used Alexander the great to model Buddha Urna Third eye Placed on forehead Ushnisha Sign of intelligence Nimbus Symbol of holiness Long ear lobes Buddha was wealthy He was an Indian prince Anyone who attains enlightenment is a Buddha Sanghati Gown Ascetic Given up worldly goods Mudras Hand gestures Gupta Period Seated Buddha preaching 1st sermon Most famous image Yogi ascetic Lion throne Teaching gesture Winged lions = royalty Serene pose Predella Story underneath sculpture Deer Wheel Scene of sermon under sculpture Lotus Symbol of enlightenment, purity Progress of the soul Ajanta Cave India Carved from the rocks Beautiful Bodhissava Tribhanga pose Padmapani = lotus, breath in Jatakas Stories of Buddha Colossal Buddha On silk road Sand stone Blown up 2001 Gandharan style Thangka 800 years old, survived in cave Silk painting Tibetan mystical religion Dali Lama (Tibetan priest) Ocean High Priest Leader of Tibetan Buddhism Won nobel peace prize Brilliant colors Symbol of wisdom Painted banner Sky burial Bodies are broken into pieces and fed to the birds Stupas Sacred places Ananda Buddha’s cousin 2,000 monuments around area
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