COMM 3200 Week Two Notes
COMM 3200 Week Two Notes COMM 3200
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liana Sandell on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 3200 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Amanda Denes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communications at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Class notes September 8, 2016 Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication: any communicative behavior other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone Principal 1: interpersonal communication consists of verbal and nonverbal messages Relationship between verbal and non verbal Nonverbal messages work with verbal messages to create a shared meaning by 1. substitution— nonverbal communication can substitute for words, these are universal symbols that relate to language (using a thumbs up rather than saying good job) 2. repetition— When a verbal and nonverbal message used together to mean one thing also means the same thing as separate pieces, so using the two pieces in tandem is a “repeat” in meaning (ex. If you want to tell someone to turn right, your words say it and your hand pointing in that direction is saying it too, which adds more clarity) 3. complementing —doing an action that represents what you are saying 4. accenting—doing an action which emphasizes what you are saying 5. regulating— nonverbal messages that help the verbal message start or stop (ex. raising your hand) Characteristics of nonverbal communication Nonverbal is more believable than verbal communication because 1. leakage cues— nonverbal behaviors that indicate someone might be luing 2. look for micro expressions (quick looks) a. eye movement b. hiding eyes or mouth c. adjusting hair or clothes d. playing with ears 3. nonverbal communication is continuous— behaviors occur in continuous streams with no ends 4. nonverbal communication is multi-channeled a. bodily cues b. facial cues c. distance d. touch e. appearance and artifacts f. voice Types of cues 1. immediacy— liking or pleasure (ex. voice is a higher pitch or friendly tone, sitting close together) 2. arousal— interest or excitement (related to anxiety, talking quickly or getting animated) 3. dominance— status or control (the way you stand, hovering or talking over, pointing) Bodily cues *Your face is capable of 250,000 different expressions The six primary universal emotions 1. sadness 2. anger 3. disgust 4. fear 5. surprise 6. happiness Display rules: measure appropriateness (they are culturally speciﬁc) Kinesics— human body movement, posture and gesture categories of kinesics: 1. emblems— commonly understood meaning 2. illustrators— accompany a verbal message and either contradict, accent or compliment it 3. adaptors— channel energy (ex. using hand expressions) 4. regulators— control the ﬂow of communication (put your hand up in class) 5. affect displays— different ways we use our bodies to communication emotions (tears, opening up eyes wide, yawning, punching something, blushing) Proxemics (distance)— the study of how we communication through personal distance Hall’s spatial zones: 1. intimate space (0-1.5ft)— intimate interactions 2. personal space (1.5-4ft)— friends, colleagues, family 3. social space (4-12ft)— group interactions 4. public space (12 or more ft)— one to many interactions Haptic (touch)— another nonverbal change through which we communicate We use touch to: 1. emphasize our words 2. communicate affection 3. assert ourselves 4. manage interactions Appearance and artifacts 1. appearance— people are evaluated on how they present themselves (U.S american culture is heavily focused on this) 2. artifacts— any object that communicates something about you (ex. jewelry, a cell phone, car, purse) Vocalics(voice)— it’s not about what you say its about how you say what you say. Volcalics often communicate the entire meaning of the message 1. vocal cues (includes tone) 2. rate/speed 3. pitch 4. volume Class Notes September 12, 2016 Communicating Identity: The Self Concept— Chapter Two • how the self concept develops • how self-concept affects communication with others How the self concept develops Symbolic interaction theory: explains that people make sense of the world through their interactions Looking glass self: is the part of your self-concept that you learn based on your interaction with others that reﬂect yourself back to you 1. imaging how others view us 2. imagine how they judge us 3. internalize this Our concepts of self vary with circumstances, contexts and individuals Principal 2: the feedback we receive from others helps to shape our identities Social comparison: it is the process of noticing how you compare and contrast to other individuals with whom you interact • upward communication (you are similar to people you look up to) • downward communication (you are different that people who are worse than you) Reference groups: are people to whom you can realistically compare yourself from From comparison, you derive…. Self esteem: an evaluation of personal value Principal 5: identity inﬂuences our evaluations of self How the Self Concept Develops What happens when you compare yourself to inappropriate reference groups? Results in low self-esteem What happens when you have too much self esteem? Narcissism— act inﬂated but have a fragile ego Hubris— exaggerated self pride and lack of humility How self-concept effects communication with others Selective exposure— our tendency to put ourselves in situations that reinforce who we think we are (self-concept) and the outcomes we expect. Self-fulﬁlling prophecies— occur when our predictions about how things will turn out, come true because we subconsciously make them happen (when we constantly think about something we subconsciously implement these things) Self Fulﬁlling prophecies Negative cycle Low self esteem 1. Leads to negative thoughts— “i cant do it” 2. Undesirable behavior (ex. don’t try as hard) 3. Negative thoughts— “i failed again Positive cycle high self esteems 1. Positive thoughts— “i can do it” 2. desirable behavior 3. positive thoughts— “i did well” Principal 3: Our identities help us interpret feedback from others Principal 4: identity incorporates expectations and guides behavior Principal 6: Identity inﬂuences the likelihood of goal achievement The six identities: In any interaction these identities are all present 1. who you think you are 2. who you think the other person is 3. who you think the other person thinks you are 4. who the other person thinks they are 5. who they think you are 6. who they think you think they are Self Expansion Theory Identity inﬂuences the development of close relationships after ﬁrst impressions are made 1. people seek to expand themselves 2. people enter into relationships for the opportunity to expand identities • people in close relationships tend to merge identities • can still have a strong sense of self 3. relationship success depends on ability of relationship to expand experiences and sense of self Discussion Notes Self concept— the way you describe yourself and your perception of how other’s see you. it is the foundation of relationships aka identity— the person we think we are and the person we communicate to others Principal 1: our identities provide us with a hierarchical structure of who we are Identity, perceptions and social interaction 1. our identities help us understand ourselves in relationship to the world 2. self esteem— how negatively or positively we see ourselves a. high self esteem— perceive themselves as possessing valuable personal characteristics b. low self esteem— not possessing valuable personal characteristics Factors which affect our identity Four frames: 1. personal frame 2. enactment frame 3. relationship frame 4. communal frame Communicating our identities to others 1. self presentation describes peoples tendency to manage their behavior to create particular images General issues in self-presentation 1. is self presentations hypocritical, manipulative or deceptive? 2. how is self-presentation related to communication competence? a. people who are socially skilled have a knack for engaging in behavior that is both polite and situationally appropriate b. we are more likely to present an overly favorable impressions of ourselves to strangers than to friends 3. to what extent is self-presentation a deliberate, conscious activity? a. back vs. front stage b. basically public vs. private
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