POLI201 Chapter 3 Notes
POLI201 Chapter 3 Notes POLI 201 -001
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POLI 201 -001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleopatra Shabazz on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 -001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by David Darmofal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Chapter 3 Important Term Definition/Main Idea Example Historical Event Federalism Divides power between national and state governments Federal government receives expressed and implied powers from the Constitution th States receive the rest of governmental power as stated in the 10 amendment Examples: o The government’s slow response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 created tension between the federal, state, and local officials o Therefore, President Obama and state and local officials immediately responded to Hurricane Sandy in 2012 State Powers Full Faith and Credit Clause: states must respect the public actions and judicial decisions that occur in every other state Privileges and Immunities Clause: prevents states from discriminating citizens from another state The constitution does not give any power to local governments since they were created by the states and must abide by state rules Four Stages of Federalism 1. Dual Federalism (1789-1937) Federal and state governments shared powers However, the most important powers were exercised by the state governments Federal Government Tries to Establish National Power McColluch v Maryland (1819): established supremacy clause which states that federal laws are more powerful that state laws Gibbons v Ogden (1824): reinforce federal power The New Deal provided the federal government with more national power when Congress expanded its role in regulating commercial activity 2. Cooperative Federalism (1937-1960s) Federal government and state governments developed partnerships and supportive relations Increased “grantinaid” (funding of state and local governments) 3. Regulated Federalism (1960s-1990s) States now have to follow standards and rules as stated by the federal government Increased unfunded mandates: standards and programs that states and national government are required to follow without any funding from federal government 4. New Federalism (1990s-Present) Create more national policies that will provide states with more freedom Increase block grants: federal funding that states receive to cover good, services, and programs; only a few restrictions on how to spend the funds Unfunded Mandate Reform Act o Limited the amount of unfunded mandates imposed on state governments o Strengthened the federal government’s relationship with state and local governments Loosen federal restrictions on grantsinaid Health Care Reform Act New Health Reform Law Mandate = Constitutional? o No! Constitution cannot make citizens buy anything from a private firm Does not involve the regulation of interstate commerce o Yes! Tax is the penalty for not having insurance Helps regulate commercial activity Example: most states make citizens get auto insurance Separation of Powers Seeks to limit power of federal government against itself Checks and balances o Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches are able to keep an eye on each other o Each branch has agenda and veto power over the other branches o Allows each branch to negotiate, moderate, and compromise their decisions o Helps the branches stay on the same page Legislative Supremacy: Legislative branch = most powerful branch Rise of Divided Government o Occurs when president and congress are from different political parties Democratic congress + Reagan administration ≠ war and spending powers Congressional Republicans + President Obama ≠ tax increases Judicial Review o Allows the Supreme Court to review presidential actions and laws passed by congress o Was not used must throughout history o Has recently been used more frequently
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