Introduction to Physics II
Introduction to Physics II PHY 184
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cameron Blochwitz on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 184 at Michigan State University taught by Oscar Naviliat Cuncic in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Physics for Scientists and Engineers II in Physics at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
PHY 184 Lecture Notes Week 1 8/31-9/2 Fundamental Forces There are four fundamental forces in Physics o Gravitational o Electromagnetic These forces operate at an infinite range o Weak Force o Strong Force These forces only operate within short distances All physical interactions are the cumulative result of the interactions of these forces o Most large scale interactions result from Gravity and Electromagnetism Relative strengths of the forces o If all of the forces are listed by relative strength they would look something like this Strong = 1 -2 Electromagnetism = 10 Weak = 10 -5 Gravity = 10 -38 Clearly Gravity is by far the weakest of all fundamental forces Gravitational Force The force on an object of mass m from a mass M is described by the following equation, Newton’s Law → F =−G Mm u G r2 This is instantaneous action at a distance o If M disappears, F sGops acting on m at once. Electrostatic Force The force on a charge q from a charge Q is described by the following equation, Coulomb’s Law Qq → FE=−K r2 u Acts in a very similar way to gravity o Also instantaneous, and also will disappear if Q disappears Light speed The speed of light, c, is given by: c=299,792,458 m/s o Time for Light to reach Earth from: Sun 8.3 Minutes SN 1987A 167,885 years As we know nothing can go faster than the speed of light o How can Earth suddenly not be bound by gravity but light from the sun still shine for 8.3 if the Sun disappears? Force Mediators(Bosons) Electromagnetic o γ (Photon) e- Weak Force e- o z Boson o w Boson Strong Force o g (Gluon) t - - γ e e n This case is created by the interaction of photons It also tells us that in fact, gravity and electromagnetism don’t act instantly, and that Newton’s/Coulomb’s Laws are incomplete, they do not have any kind of allowance for the finite speeds achievable in our universe All forces in our universe comes from the exchange of particles.
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