HY 104: 8/24 Notes
HY 104: 8/24 Notes HY 104
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikala Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Chuck Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see History 104 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Reconstruction Part II A. The former slaves: supported Reconstruction most whole heartedly; takes them from property to citizenship; want political and economic power...to get one, they have to get the other. Wanted to be independent and selfsufficient Economic power: most of the former slaves were usually agribusiness and farming; after emancipation, most slaves moved. They had to have written permission to move. Most families just wanted land of their own. Tj believed in order to become a free man, you had to own enough land to support yourself and your family. 1. Land and economic power 2. Suffrage and political power B. Resistance to Reconstruction 1. Extralegal KKK Terrorism a. A Federal power and response to the Klan 2. The Redeemers: challenge within the system a. The depression of 1873: worst one to this date; effectively ended reconstruction; Grant is struggling on the political defensive; money for reconstruction dries up and northern political will to continue dries up. LA, FL, and AK are the only states under reconstruction at this point. C. The election of 1876 and the end of Reconstruction ● Special Field Order 15: An attempt to give land to some slave families to make them go away; Sherman wants to get the slaves away from his army; breaks up plantations of absentee south carolinians and distributes them to each adult male heads of household; 40 acres and a mule; at best, this is a temp solution. Property can only be seized for the life of the owner. Radicals are in favor of this ● Freedman’s Bureau: headed by Oliver O Howard. Attempts to name and register former slaves; set up financial system where former slaves can get mihney for land, but slaves have very little of value; Slaves take backed wages in form of 40 acres bc they have not been paid in their work. South Carolina had the majority black pop. ● Oliver O Howard: led Freedman’s Bureau; ease transition into freedom as much as possible. ● Sharecropping/crop lien system: since the former slaves have nothing to sell but labor, they typically wind up as small, dependent farmers that rent the land and in turn get access to tools and seed and land; the landlord typically takes a portion of the harvest; killed the dream of being independent farmers. The one crop former slaves would not touch cotton; at the harvest, sharecroppers get the crops, gives the landlord his cut, then sells the rest. The goal is to sell enough to pay off debts and save enough to buy the land outright, but only ⅓ of slaves ever accomplished this; they rent out their land to make money. ● Ku Klux Klan act, 1871: If you get more than Klan related events in a county, the justice dept gets involved; FBI does not exist, so the Army is called in; Power is broken by 1863...they still exist, but they cannot operate as they once did. (Extralegal; terrorist violence of the kkk; attacked Freedmen's schools, Republican meetings, etc. Racially motivated terrorism; there was no standard uniform for the kkk; hoods to hide faces, Klan thinks the ex slaves are stupid and believe they are ghosts, but the slaves knew better; it does not matter the age of a black man, they are still referred to as “boy”; this time was the height of Klan activity.) ● Colefax Massacre: 1873: Grant Parish, LA; Colefax, LA; Easter Sunday...a disputed election return from the previous year. Local militia was attacked and more than 200 are killed, including 60 who were surrendered. ● “Redeemers” (Bourbons): White southerners who claim they are distressed by violence in southern society; It’s only when you try to elevate slaves abo9ve their natural place is when you get push back. Let the white southerns handle their own race relations instead of outside northerners. ● The “Lost Cause”: Created by the redeemers; left the union to protect slavery, but said it was about the state’s rights to control their own destinies. Jubil Early wrote the story; is Robert Lee’s first biographer. Lost Cause argues that the slaves were happy and if you left it to the southerners, they would be happy again. ● Whiskey Ring: ● Rutherford B Hayes: Republican nominee in 1876; hinting to southerners that he is not interested in reconstruction; republican party starts to back away. Wins bc of LA, AR, and FL. Sherman freaks bc he thinks it will be 1861 all over again. ● Samuel J Tillden: Democratic nominee in 1876 ● Compromise of 1877: If votes are certified for Hayes, Hayes will end reconstruction completely and will appoint a southerner to Post Master General (had the most jobs to give out). Called him Rutherfraud B Hayes. The slaves wanted nothing more than to learn to read Many Freedmen's Bureau school teachers were white women. Education was a tool of power was very clear to slaves
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