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ABCC4 Lecture Notes

by: Claudia Alvarez

ABCC4 Lecture Notes CIS 105

Claudia Alvarez

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About this Document

Lecture notes taken during McCarthy's CIS class. Chapter 4 notes that provide useful information for both Knowledge Check 4 and upcoming exam.
Computer Appls&Info Technology
Wood, McCarthy
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claudia Alvarez on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 105 at Arizona State University taught by Wood, McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Computer Appls&Info Technology in Business at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
Ch.4 Operating Systems Lecture Notes Understanding Operating Systems  ●  Configures computer   ● Collection of computer programs   ● Administers hardware/software   ● Controls and allocates memory   ● Administers input and output  ○ A computer is ​binary​ (​*Why is a computer binary? A: It only needs to be  turned on and off​)  ○ Machine Code:​ Combo of 1s and 0s  ● Manages filing system  ● aka ‘platform’     Common Business Computing Platforms   ● Microsoft Windows   ● Mac OS   ● Unix   ● Linux     Why does Microsoft Windows dominate the platform market?   (Major League Baseball is the only entity allowed to be a monopoly)    Operating System Facts   ● When a computer is powered up, ​hundreds of system software​ programs  automatically configure the computer and find and enable the operating system.   ● An OS is also considered ‘​system software​’, whereas a program like Microsoft  Excel or Adobe Photoshop are considered ​“application software’​.   ● App. software resides on an OS; application software ​DOES NOT WORK  WITHOUT​ system software.     What an Operating System provides   ● Processes​ / Multitasking   ○ The ability to run more than one process at a time.   ● Memory Management / Storage   ○ CPU Cache   ○ RAM  ■ Can only work in RAM in a computer  ■ Volatile  ○ Registers   ○ Virtual Memory   ■ Only memory that is not a memory at all   ○ Disk Storage     Processing / Multitasking   In the early days of computing, computers could only do one thing at a time.  Multitasking​ lets you run both, or many application software at once.     Memory Management / Storage   OS coordinate and arrange the computer’s memory which includes cache, RAM,  registers, and virtual memory. Platform also facilitate disk storage.     CPU Cache:   ● Small, very quick memory that stores copies info that is most regularly used.   ● Ex: If a user frequently uses Adobe Photoshop, common parts of Photoshop will  be stored in CPU cache so it loads faster.    RAM:   Primary storage that can be accessed in any order without physical movement which  makes it very fast, and where “work’ is done. Info. in RAM must be saved to secondary  storage to be used again.     Registers:   Very fast, small amounts of memory used to quicken computer programs to access  calculated values.     Virtual Memory: ( ​ NOT A MEMORY)   Used to coordinated, track, and allocate CPU cache, RAM and disk storage. Virtual  memory is not really a memory, rather a technique that lets application software use  fragmented pieces of large memory to use physical memory. ​(is the “elf”)    Which is better, a Personal Computer (PC) or a Mac?  For graphics: Mac  Business: PC  (Which OS architecturally, is better?) A: Mac      Disk Storage:  Non­volatile secondary storage like an internal hard drive, an optical disk, or even a  hard drive in the Cloud. Hard drives have spinning platters, like a record player that  record positive or negative charges that represent ‘1s’ and ‘0s’, a binary system.     How can you guarantee information is off a hard drive? Where is your old  computer?     Disk Management   Operating systems are responsible for reading and writing data and info. onto a disk.       Disk management systems​ write files onto the hard drive in no particular order, which is  fast. Reading files from the hard drive becomes slower as the disk becomes more and  more fragmented.     FAT  / NTFS:   ‘Table of Contents’ for a hard drive.     Defragmentation   If a disk management systems write files onto the hard drive in no particular order,  defragmentation (defrag) puts it away. ​Does not make your hard drive go faster.   ● IPhones have an OS (Embedded Operating Systems (can’t be modified))     Defragmentation reorders hard drive as well as moves data and info. into its inside  concentric tracks so the read/write arm moves a shorter distance, therefore more  economical.     File Management   Stores and organizes a user’s work represented by computer files on the memory of the  computer. Presented in a GUI. Files and folders are displayed in a hierarchy.         Networking   ● Two or more computers connected together to share resources.  ● Packets:  ​ Breaking files into pieces     Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (PCIP)  Rules for transferring data and information from one computer to another, like a traffic  light.     Device Drivers   Computer programs that allow ​peripheral hardware devices​ like printers or scanners to  work correctly.     Graphical User Interface (GUI)   A presentation on a computer monitor that allows a user to interact with it and devices  connected to it.     Open Source Operating Systems   ● Microsoft Windows, Proprietary   ● Mac OS, Proprietary   ● Unix, Proprietary   ● Linux, Non­ Proprietary    If Linux does everything Windows does and is free of charge, why buy Windows?  Open source vs. proprietary programming    ● Intellectual Property   ● Supply and Demand   ● Digital Rights Management            


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