ABCC4 Lecture Notes
ABCC4 Lecture Notes CIS 105
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claudia Alvarez on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 105 at Arizona State University taught by Wood, McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Computer Appls&Info Technology in Business at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/16
Ch.4 Operating Systems Lecture Notes Understanding Operating Systems ● Configures computer ● Collection of computer programs ● Administers hardware/software ● Controls and allocates memory ● Administers input and output ○ A computer is binary (*Why is a computer binary? A: It only needs to be turned on and off) ○ Machine Code: Combo of 1s and 0s ● Manages filing system ● aka ‘platform’ Common Business Computing Platforms ● Microsoft Windows ● Mac OS ● Unix ● Linux Why does Microsoft Windows dominate the platform market? (Major League Baseball is the only entity allowed to be a monopoly) Operating System Facts ● When a computer is powered up, hundreds of system software programs automatically configure the computer and find and enable the operating system. ● An OS is also considered ‘system software’, whereas a program like Microsoft Excel or Adobe Photoshop are considered “application software’. ● App. software resides on an OS; application software DOES NOT WORK WITHOUT system software. What an Operating System provides ● Processes / Multitasking ○ The ability to run more than one process at a time. ● Memory Management / Storage ○ CPU Cache ○ RAM ■ Can only work in RAM in a computer ■ Volatile ○ Registers ○ Virtual Memory ■ Only memory that is not a memory at all ○ Disk Storage Processing / Multitasking In the early days of computing, computers could only do one thing at a time. Multitasking lets you run both, or many application software at once. Memory Management / Storage OS coordinate and arrange the computer’s memory which includes cache, RAM, registers, and virtual memory. Platform also facilitate disk storage. CPU Cache: ● Small, very quick memory that stores copies info that is most regularly used. ● Ex: If a user frequently uses Adobe Photoshop, common parts of Photoshop will be stored in CPU cache so it loads faster. RAM: Primary storage that can be accessed in any order without physical movement which makes it very fast, and where “work’ is done. Info. in RAM must be saved to secondary storage to be used again. Registers: Very fast, small amounts of memory used to quicken computer programs to access calculated values. Virtual Memory: ( NOT A MEMORY) Used to coordinated, track, and allocate CPU cache, RAM and disk storage. Virtual memory is not really a memory, rather a technique that lets application software use fragmented pieces of large memory to use physical memory. (is the “elf”) Which is better, a Personal Computer (PC) or a Mac? For graphics: Mac Business: PC (Which OS architecturally, is better?) A: Mac Disk Storage: Nonvolatile secondary storage like an internal hard drive, an optical disk, or even a hard drive in the Cloud. Hard drives have spinning platters, like a record player that record positive or negative charges that represent ‘1s’ and ‘0s’, a binary system. How can you guarantee information is off a hard drive? Where is your old computer? Disk Management Operating systems are responsible for reading and writing data and info. onto a disk. Disk management systems write files onto the hard drive in no particular order, which is fast. Reading files from the hard drive becomes slower as the disk becomes more and more fragmented. FAT / NTFS: ‘Table of Contents’ for a hard drive. Defragmentation If a disk management systems write files onto the hard drive in no particular order, defragmentation (defrag) puts it away. Does not make your hard drive go faster. ● IPhones have an OS (Embedded Operating Systems (can’t be modified)) Defragmentation reorders hard drive as well as moves data and info. into its inside concentric tracks so the read/write arm moves a shorter distance, therefore more economical. File Management Stores and organizes a user’s work represented by computer files on the memory of the computer. Presented in a GUI. Files and folders are displayed in a hierarchy. Networking ● Two or more computers connected together to share resources. ● Packets: Breaking files into pieces Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (PCIP) Rules for transferring data and information from one computer to another, like a traffic light. Device Drivers Computer programs that allow peripheral hardware devices like printers or scanners to work correctly. Graphical User Interface (GUI) A presentation on a computer monitor that allows a user to interact with it and devices connected to it. Open Source Operating Systems ● Microsoft Windows, Proprietary ● Mac OS, Proprietary ● Unix, Proprietary ● Linux, Non Proprietary If Linux does everything Windows does and is free of charge, why buy Windows? Open source vs. proprietary programming ● Intellectual Property ● Supply and Demand ● Digital Rights Management
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