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Hy 104: 8/31 Notes

by: Mikala Notetaker

Hy 104: 8/31 Notes HY 104

Mikala Notetaker

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About this Document

These are notes form 8/31 in class.
History 104
Chuck Clark
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikala Notetaker on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Chuck Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see History 104 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/14/16
A. Background: the Second Industrial Revolution: Middle of 19th century;  11/11/1856: Bessemer invented process to mass produce steel; can make giant ingots  of steel; now you have a lightweight strong building material; US cities begin to grow;  steel framed buildings can be built higher; powered either by electricity or internal  combustion (gas engines); use small machines to make bigger machines; heavy  industry, not consumer industry; Railroads are first truly national corporations;  B. The Process of economic concentration a. National corporations and middle management b. The decline of the owner­operator: mostly gone;  C. From concentration to monopoly a. Free labor and monopoly:  b. Let’s meet some monopolists: Andrew Carnegie,  D. The changing nature of work a. The deskilling process: reduces autonomy b. Gender and cultural expectations:  c. Taylor and the ideal of productivity ­Largest occupation in US in 1865=farmer ­First Industrial Revo: 1760­1800 in Britain; Machines made of iron powered by steam  processed cotton into cloth and then into consumer goods.  ­Corporations have the same legal rights as people ­Create concept of middle management; someone responsible to a group they’ve never met  who has a degree of power over the day to day operations, but do not own the company they  are running and do not have unlimited power over how the company is run.  ­Emerging definition of class: how different are work clothes from Sunday clothes; changes the  way businesses interact with each other.   ­Dry goods: No one­stop­shops in 19th century;  ­Regional economies are becoming a part of the national economy ­Home and work are separate places; change in what it means to be a man and a woman;  changed how we eat ­ Key terms: ­Henry Bessemer: invented process to mass produce steel; Bessemer, AL;  ­Lassiez­Faire: counterpart of free labor; means “to leave­be”; gov should not reverse the  decisions of the market;  ­Horatio Alger: the embodiment of hard work and moral rightness getting you ahead; his novels  describe and idealized form of American society;  ­Andrew Carnegie: an orphaned scottish immigrant in the us worked as a book eeper; he  watched what he was putting in the system and noticed that railroads were going up; he talks JP Morgan to give him a loan that he uses to found a steel mill; he eventually sold it back to JP  Morgan; says he owes it back to society to give his money away; the soft face of elite  industrialists; if you agree to upkeep a library, he will buy the books and build the building;  opposes imperialism; wants to control every step of the steelmaking process; vertical  intergration;  ­J.P. Morgan: (basically) invented modern investment banking; quiet man;  ­George Eastman invented the Kodak camera;  ­Gustavus Swift: The reason many Americans got fresh meat; engineer; realized as soon as you take cattle away from the range, they lose weight; want to slaughter as early as possible;  refrigerated railroad car;  ­John D. Rockefeller: Richer than Carnegie; figures out how to control refining; does not want to  control every aspect of his company like carnegie; no matter where you get oil from, it has to be  refined; largely using it for kerosene to use for heat; controls 80­90% of refining capacity in the  US at one point; in Alabama, it is illegal to sell gasoline for less than cost because of  Rockefeller; first billionaire in western society;  ­Frederick Taylor: most efficient way to load scrap iron ­Social Darwinism:


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